Percepción de las noticias falsas en universitarios de Portugal: análisis de su consumo y actitudes

Palabras clave: Fake news, Noticias falsas, Desinformación, Consumo de información, Actitudes, Percepciones, Opiniones, Jóvenes, Estudiantes, Enseñanza superior, Portugal.

Resumen

Las noticias falsas, también conocidas como fake news, representan una parte significativa de uno de los problemas más complejos en el marco de la circulación de información en la sociedad contemporánea: la desinformación. A pesar de no ser un fenómeno nuevo, su importancia y las posibles consecuencias sociales y políticas de su difusión por internet han sido ampliamente discutidas, especialmente, en los últimos dos años. Los jóvenes son uno de los grupos más expuestos a esta realidad, si tenemos en cuenta la presencia de la tecnología de la comunicación en su día a día. En este artículo revisamos la bibliografía relacionada con la desinformación y analizamos la ya larga relación entre las noticias falsas y el periodismo, con especial hincapié en las particularidades de la situación actual. Siguiendo el método cuantitativo, hemos utilizado un cuestionario para analizar la percepción de 602 jóvenes estudiantes portugueses de entre 17 y 25 años sobre las noticias falsas. Los resultados revelan que se trata de un grupo habituado a consumir información online, y que ya ha entrado en contacto con lo que consideran noticias falsas. Sin embargo, existen diferentes concepciones —en ocasiones, equivocadas— de la expresión fake news. Así pues, este estudio subraya la importancia de la alfabetización mediática y, más concretamente, de la credibilidad, de contrastar la información online y de la actual dinámica de la información.

Biografía del autor/a

João Figueira, Universidad de Coimbra
Assistant Professor - Faculty of Letters, University of Coimbra
Sílvio Santos, University of Coimbra
Assistant Professor - Faculty of Letters, University of Coimbra

Referencias

Aguaded, Ignacio; Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M. (2015). “Mediamorfosis y desinformación en la infoesfera: Alfabetización mediática, digital e informacional ante los cambios de hábitos de consumo informativo”. Education in the knowledge society, v. 16, n. 1, pp. 44-57. http://revistas.usal.es/index.php/eks/article/view/12701

Aguaded, Ignacio; Romero-Rodríguez, Luis (eds.) (2018). Competencias mediáticas en medios digitales emergentes. Salamanca: Comunicación Social Ediciones y Publicaciones. ISBN: 978 84 17600 03 7

Allcott, Hunt; Gentzkow, Matthew (2017). “Social media and fake news in the 2016 election”. Journal of economic perspectives, v. 31, n. 2, pp. 211-236. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211

Anderson, Monica; Jiang, Jingjing (2018). Teens, social media & technology 2018. Pew Research Center. http://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2018/05/31102617/PI_2018.05.31_TeensTech_FINAL.pdf

Balmas, Meital (2012). “When fake news becomes real: Combined exposure to multiple news sources and political attitudes of inefficacy, alienation, and cynicism”. Communication research, v. 20, n. 10, pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650212453600

Benito-Ruiz, Elena (2009). “Infoxication 2.0”. In: Thomas, Michael (ed.). Handbook of research on web 2.0 and second language learning. Hershey: IGI Global, pp. 60-79. ISBN: 978 1 60566 190 2

Bennett, Sue; Maton, Karl; Kervin, Lisa (2008). “The ‘digital natives’ debate: A critical review of the evidence”. British journal of educational technology, v. 39, n. 5, pp. 775-786. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00793.x

Bialik, Kristen; Matsa, Katerina-Eva (2017). “Key trends in social and digital news media”. Factank. News in the numbers. Pew Research Center, October 4. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/10/04/key-trends-in-social-and-digital-news-media

Breton, Philippe (2002). A palavra manipulada. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho. ISBN: 978 972 2114516

Castells, Manuel (2015). Redes de indignación y esperanza. Los movimientos sociales en la era de internet. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. ISBN: 978 84 20609607

Catalina-García, Beatriz; García-Jiménez, Antonio; Montes-Vozmediano, Manuel (2015). “Jóvenes y consumo de noticias a través de internet y los medios sociales”. Historia y comunicación social, v. 20, n. 2, pp. 601-619. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_HICS.2015.v20.n2.51402

Chen, Xinran; Sin, Sei-Ching-Joanna; Theng, Yin-Leng; Lee, Chei-Sian (2015). “Why students share misinformation on social media: Motivation, gender, and study-level differences”. The journal of academic librarianship, v. 41, pp. 583-592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acalib.2015.07.003

Chen, Yimin; Conroy, Nial J.; Rubin, Victoria L. (2015). “News in an online world: The need for an ‘automatic crap detector’”. In: Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, v. 52, n. 1, pp. 1-4. https://doi.org/10.1002/pra2.2015.145052010081

Children’s Commissioner (2017). Growing up digital. A report of the growing up digital taskforce. https://www.childrenscommissioner.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/Growing-Up-Digital-Taskforce-Report-January-2017_0.pdf

Coombes, Barbara (2009). “Gen Y: Are they really digital natives or more like digital refugees?”. Synergy, v. 7, n. 1, pp. 31-40.

Costera-Meijer, Irene (2007). “The paradox of popularity: How young people experience the news”. Journalism studies, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 96-116. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700601056874

Del-Vicario, Michela; Bessi, Alessandro; Zollo, Fabiana; Petroni, Fabio; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Stanley, H. Eugene; Quattrociocchi, Walter (2016). “The spreading of misinformation online”. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, v. 113, n. 3, pp. 554-559. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1517441113

ERC (2016). As novas dinâmicas do consumo audiovisual em Portugal. Entidade Reguladora para a Comunicação Social. ISBN: 978 989 20 6593 9

European Commission (2017a). Special eurobarometer 461. Designing Europe’s future: Trust in institutions, globalisation, support for the euro, opinions about free trade and solidarity. Brussels: European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Survey/getSurveyDetail/instruments/SPECIAL/surveyKy/2173

European Commission (2017b). Standard eurobarometer 88. Media use in the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/commfrontoffice/publicopinion/index.cfm/Survey/getSurveyDetail/instruments/STANDARD/surveyKy/2143

European Commission (2018). A multi-dimensional approach to disinformation. Report of the Independent High Level Group on Fake News and Online Disinformation. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. https://doi.org/10.2759/739290

Flaxman, Seth; Goel, Sharad; Rao, Justin M. (2016). “Filter bubbles, echo chambers, and online news consumption”. Public opinion quarterly, v. 80, n. S1, pp. 298-320. https://doi.org/10.1093/poq/nfw006

Fuller, Jack (2010). What is happening to news: The information explosion and the crisis in journalism. Chicago: The Chicago University Press. ISBN: 978 0 226 26898 9

Galdón-López, Gabriel (2001). Desinformação e os limites da informação. Lisboa: Folhas & Letras. ISBN: 978 972 8800053

Gleick, James (2011). The information: A history, a theory, a flood. New York: Pantheon Books. ISBN: 978 1 400096237

Guess, Andrew; Nagler, Jonathan; Tucker, Joshua (2019). “Less than you think: Prevalence and predictors of fake news dissemination on Facebook”. Science advances, v. 5, n. 1, eaau4586. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aau4586

Guess, Andrew; Nyhan, Brendan; Reifler, Jason (2018). Selective exposure to misinformation: Evidence from the consumption of fake news during the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign. European Research Council. https://www.dartmouth.edu/~nyhan/fake-news-2016.pdf

Hargittai, Eszter; Fullerton, Lindsay; Menchen-Trevino, Ericka; Thomas, Kristin-Yates (2010). “Trust online: Young adults’ evaluation of web content”. International journal of communication, v. 4, pp. 468-494. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/636

Head, Alison J.; Wihbey, John; Metaxas, P. Takis; MacMillan, Margy; Cohen, Dan (2018). How students engage with news: Five takeaways for educators, journalists, and librarians. Project information literacy, October 16. http://projectinfolit.org/news_study

Hetherington, Mark J.; Weiler, Jonathan D. (2009). Authoritarianism and polarization in American politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978 0 521711241

Hirst, Martin (ed.). News 2.0: Can journalism survive the internet?. Singapore: Allen & Unwin, pp. 108-128. ISBN: 978 1 742370576

Jenkins, Henry (2008). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press. ISBN: 978 0 814742952 https://cutt.ly/jsDdSo

Jenkins, Henry; Ford, Sam; Green, Joshua (2013). Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture. New York: New York University Press. ISBN: 978 0 814743508

Jiang, Jingjing (2018c). “Millennials stand out for their technology use, but older generations also embrace digital life”. Factank. News in the numbers. Pew Research Center, May 2. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/05/02/millennials-stand-out-for-their-technology-use-but-older-generations-also-embrace-digital-life

Jones, Jeffrey (2007). “‘Fake’ news versus ‘real’ news as sources of political information: The daily show and postmodern political reality”. In: Riegert, Kristina (ed.). Politicotainment: Television’s take on the real. New York: Peter Lang Publishers, pp. 129-149. ISBN: 978 0 820481142

Kovach, Bill; Rosenstiel, Tom (2004). Os elementos do jornalismo. Porto: Porto Editora. ISBN: 978 972 0 45257 3

Kovach, Bill; Rosenstiel, Tom (2010). Blur: How to know what´s true in the age of information overload. New York: Bloomsbury. ISBN: 978 1 608193011

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Gignac, Gilles E.; Oberauer, Klaus (2013). “The role of conspiracist ideation and worldviews in predicting rejection of science”. Plos one, v. 10, n. 8, e0134773. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075637

Lewandowsky, Stephan; Stritzke, Werner G. K.; Freund, Alexandra M.; Oberauer, Klaus; Krueger, Joachim I. (2013). “Misinformation, disinformation, and violent conflict: From Iraq and the ‘war on terror’ to future threats to peace”. American psychologist, v. 68, n. 7, pp. 487-501. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034515

Lotero-Echeverri, Gabriel; Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Pérez-Rodríguez, Amor (2018). “Fact-checking vs. fake news: Periodismo de confirmación como recurso de la competencia mediática contra la desinformación”. Index.comunicación, v. 8, n. 2, pp. 295-316. http://journals.sfu.ca/indexcomunicacion/index.php/indexcomunicacion/article/view/370/400

Love, Robert (2007). “Before Jon Stewart”. Columbia journalism review, v. 45, n. 6, pp. 33-37. https://archives.cjr.org/feature/before_jon_stewart.php

McChesney, Robert; Nichols, John (2010). The death and life of American journalism: The media revolution that will begin the world again. Philadelphia: Nation Books. ISBN: 978 1 568586052

McGrew, Sarah; Ortega, Teresa; Breakstone, Joel; Wineburg, Sam (2017). “The challenge that’s bigger than fake news: Civic reasoning in a social media environment”. American educator, v. 4, n. 3, pp. 4-9. https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/ae_fall2017.pdf

Media Insight Project (2015). “How millennials get news: Inside the habits of America’s first digital generation”. American Press Institute, March 16. https://www.americanpressinstitute.org/publications/reports/survey-research/millennials-news

Media Insight Project (2017). “‘My’ media versus ‘the’ media: Trust in news depends on which news media you mean”. American Press Institute, May 24. https://www.americanpressinstitute.org/publications/reports/survey-research/my-media-vs-the-media/single-page

Mihailidis, Paul; Viotty, Samantha (2017). “Spreadable spectacle in digital culture: Civic expression, fake news, and the role of media literacies in ‘post-fact’ society”. American behavioral scientist, v. 61, n. 4, pp. 441-454. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764217701217

National Literacy Trust (2017). Fake news and critical literacy: The final report of the Commission on Fake News and the Teaching of Critical Literacy in Schools. https://literacytrust.org.uk/documents/1722/Fake_news_and_critical_literacy_-_final_report.pdf

Negroponte, Nicholas (1996). Ser digital. Lisboa: Editorial Caminho. ISBN: 978 972 2110563

Newman, Nic; Fletcher, Richard; Kalogeropoulos, Antonis; Levy, David A. L.; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2017). Reuters Institute. Digital news report 2017. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/Digital%20News%20Report%202017%20web_0.pdf

Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2016). “The many crises of Western journalism: A comparative analysis of economic crises, professional crises, and crises of confidence”. In: Alexander, Jeffrey; Breese, Elizabeth-Butler; Luengo, Maria (eds.). The crisis of journalism reconsidered: Democratic culture, professional codes, digital future. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 77-97. ISBN: 978 1 107448513

Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis; Graves, Lucas (2017). ‘News you don’t believe’: Audience perspectives on fake news. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism report.

https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2017-10/Nielsen%26Graves_factsheet_1710v3_FINAL_download.pdf

Otte, Max (2010). El crash de la información. Los mecanismos de la desinformación cotidiana. Barcelona: Editorial Planeta. ISBN: 978 84 34469235

Pariser, Eli (2011). The filter bubble: What the internet is hiding from you. London: Penguin Press. ISBN: 978 0 241954522

Pérez-Tornero, José-Manuel; Tayie, Sally-Samy; Tejedor, Santiago; Pulido, Cristina (2018). “¿Cómo afrontar las noticias falseadas mediante la alfabetización periodística? Estado de la cuestión”. Doxa comunicación, n. 26, pp. 211-235. https://doi.org/10.31921/doxacom.n26a10

Pérez-Tornero, José-Manuel; Varis, Tapio (2010). Media literacy and new humanism. Moskow: Unesco Institute for Information Technologies in Education. ISBN: 978 5 905175 05 3 https://iite.unesco.org/pics/publications/en/files/3214678.pdf

Pool, Keith T.; Rosenthal, Howard (1984). “The polarization of American politics”. The journal of politics, v. 46, n. 4, pp. 1061-1079. https://doi.org/10.2307/2131242

Prensky, Marc (2001). “Digital natives, digital immigrants”. On the horizon, v. 9, n. 5, pp. 1-6. https://www.marcprensky.com/writing/Prensky%20-%20Digital%20Natives,%20Digital%20Immigrants%20-%20Part1.pdf

Reja, Ursa; Manfreda, Katja-Lozar; Hlebec, Valentina; Vehovar, Vasja (2003). “Open-ended vs. close-ended questions in web questionnaires”. Developments in applied statistics, v. 19, n. 1, pp. 159-177. https://www.stat-d.si/mz/mz19/reja.pdf

Ramonet, Ignacio (1990). “Le coupable silence des médias”. In: De-Selys, Gérard (org.). Médiamensonges. Bruxelles: Éditions EPO, pp. 55-62.

Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Casas-Moreno, Patricia; Caldeiro-Pedreira, Mari-Carmen (2018). “Desinformación e infoxicación en las cuartas pantallas”. In: Aguaded, Ignacio; Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M. Competencia mediática en medios digitales emergentes. Salamanca: Comunicación Social Ediciones y Publicaciones, pp. 73-92. ISBN: 978 84 17600 03 7 http://www.romero-rodriguez.com/portfolio-items/desinformacion-e-infoxicacion-en-las-cuartas-pantallas

Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Torres-Toukoumidis, Ángel; Pérez-Rodríguez, M. Amor; Aguaded, Ignacio (2016). “Analfanautas y la cuarta pantalla: ausencia de infodietas y de competencias mediáticas e informaciones en jóvenes universitarios latinoamericanos”. Fonseca, journal of communication, v. 12, pp. 11-25. https://doi.org/10.14201/fjc2016121125

Romero-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Valle-Razo, Ana; Torres-Toukoumidis, Ángel (2018). “Hacia una construcción conceptual de las fake news: Epistemologías y tipologías de las nuevas formas de desinformación”. In: Pérez-Serrano, María-José; Alcolea-Díaz, Gema; Nogales-Bocio, Antonia I. Poder y medios en las sociedades del siglo XXI. Sevilla: Egregius, pp. 259-273. ISBN: 978 84 17270698 https://cutt.ly/whDn96

Serrano, Pascual (2009). Desinformación: cómo los medios ocultan el mundo. Barcelona: Ediciones Península. ISBN: 978 84 83078808

Shearer, Elisa (2018). “Social media outpaces print newspapers in the U.S. as a news source”. Factank. News in the numbers. Pew Research Center, December 10. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/12/10/social-media-outpaces-print-newspapers-in-the-u-s-as-a-news-source

Silverman, Craig (2015). “Lies, damn lies, and viral content. How news websites spread (and debunk) online rumors, unverified claims and misinformation”. Tow Center for Digital Journalism. https://academiccommons.columbia.edu/doi/10.7916/D8Q81RHH

Smith, Aaron; Anderson, Monica (2018b). Social media use in 2018. Pew Research Center. http://assets.pewresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/14/2018/03/01105133/PI_2018.03.01_Social-Media_FINAL.pdf

Southwell, Brian G.; Thorson, Emily A.; Sheble, Laura (eds.) (2018). Misinformation and mass audiences. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN: 978 1 477314562

Sullivan, Margaret (2017). “It’s time to retire the tainted term ‘fake news’”. Washington Post, January 8. https://www.washingtonpost.com

Tally, Robert (2011). “I am the mainstream media (and so can you!)”. In: Amarasingam, Amarnath (ed.). The Stewart/Colbert effect. Essays on the real impacts of fake news. North Carolina: McFarland, pp. 149-163. ISBN: 978 0 786458868

Tandoc, Edson C.; Lim, Zheng-Wei; Ling, Richard (2018). “Defining ‘fake news’”. Digital journalism, v. 6, n. 2, pp. 137-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1360143

Tapscott, Don (1998). Growing up digital: The rise of the net generation. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN: 978 0 071347983

Thornton, Brian (2000). “The Moon hoax: Debates about ethics in 1835 New York newspapers”. Journal of mass media ethics, v. 15, n. 2, pp. 89-100. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327728JMME1502_3

Volkoff, Vladimir (2000). Pequena história da desinformação. Lisboa: Editorial Notícias. ISBN: 978 972 4611556

Wardle, Claire; Derakhshan, Hossein (2017). Information disorder. Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policymaking. Council of Europe report DGI(2017)09. https://rm.coe.int/information-disorder-toward-an-interdisciplinary-framework-for-researc/168076277c

Wineburg, Sam; McGrew, Sarah (2016). “Why students can’t google their way to the truth: Fact-checkers and students approach websites differently”. Education week, November, 1. https://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2016/11/02/why-students-cant-google-their-way-to.html

Woodrow, Alain (1996). Informação, manipulação. Lisboa: Dom Quixote. ISBN: 978 972 2009300

Publicado
2019-06-09
Cómo citar
Figueira, J., & Santos, S. (2019). Percepción de las noticias falsas en universitarios de Portugal: análisis de su consumo y actitudes. Profesional De La Información, 28(3). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.may.15
Sección
Artículos de investigación / Research articles

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.