Profesional de la información <p><strong><em>Profesional de la información</em></strong> is a scholarly journal on communication, information, indicators, libraries and information technologies.</p> <div>Impact factor JCR: JIF 2021 = 3.596 (Q2)</div> <div>Scopus/<a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago Journal Rank</a>: SJR 2021 = 0.831 (Q1)</div> Ediciones Profesionales de la Información SL es-ES Profesional de la información 1386-6710 <div class="gmail_quote"> <div class="gmail_default"> <p><strong>Condiciones de difusión de los artículos una vez son publicados</strong></p> <p><strong>Los autores pueden publicitar sus artículos de acuerdo con estos términos:<br /></strong>Pasadas <strong>2 semanas desde la publicación</strong> (tiempo necesario para que <em>Google</em> indexe la versión de la web de la revista), los autores pueden ofrecer en sus webs (personales o institucionales) o en cualquier repositorio de acceso abierto (OA) una copia del trabajo publicado por <em>EPI</em>. Deberán respetarse sin embargo, las siguientes condiciones:<br />- Solo deberá hacerse pública<strong> la versión editorial</strong>. Rogamos que no se publiquen preprints, postprints o pruebas de imprenta.<br />- Junto con esa copia ha de incluirse una <strong>mención específica</strong> de la publicación en la que ha aparecido el texto, añadiendo además un enlace clicable a la URL: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>La revista <em>Profesional de la información</em> ofrece los artículos en acceso abierto con una licencia Creative Commons BY <img src="" />.</p> </div> </div> <div class="gmail_quote"> <div> </div> </div> Digital transparency and political communication <p class="p1">The academic debate on transparency has experienced a boom in recent decades. A review of the scientific literature allows us to identify two key moments in the discussion on digital transparency: the declaration of Barack Obama’s <em>Memorandum on transparency and open government</em> in 2009 and the <em>Cambridge Analytica</em> scandal in 2018. The first was linked to a groundswell of enthusiasm for the concept of government transparency, with the promise that it would boost accountability, eliminate corruption, and promote political efficiency in a crisis of institutional legitimacy. The second altered the digital transparency agenda and catalysed a discussion about the need for technology and social media companies (<em>Facebook</em>, <em>Twitter</em>, or <em>Google</em>) to make transparency commitments because of their role in generating a public conversation and the democratic implications. This paper reviews the idea of digital transparency in the scientific literature framed in the field of political communication and tries to reflect the need for more research on its political, social, and cultural implications.</p> Eva Campos-Domínguez María Díez-Garrido Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.04 Transparency mechanisms in the media: analysis of Spain and Portugal <p> </p> <p class="p1">Transparency in the media has become a fundamental pillar within all democratic societies, as a mechanism for reinforcing government regulation (Anderson, 2009) and citizen trust in institutions (Vos and Craft, 2016). Journalism, which has traditionally acted as a watchdog and a check on power, is now in the midst of a credibility crisis, compounded by polarization and the rise of disinformation. For this reason, various studies advocate that media outlets, just like institutions and governments, should use transparency mechanisms that allow them to respond directly or indirectly to society regarding the content they publish, as an exercise of responsibility. This research aims to evaluate media transparency in the Spanish–Portuguese landscape by means of an index that includes variables studied in the theoretical framework and that come from legislative, academic, and professional sources. These variables have been used to measure corporate and financial transparency, transparency in content production, openness to public participation, and the self-regulation mechanisms of ten media outlets in Spain and Portugal. This study concluded that, with only 43% adherence to the transparency variables analyzed, promoting accountability is still a work in progress for media outlets, and it must be stepped up at both the academic and professional levels.</p> Cristina Renedo-Farpón João Canavilhas María Díez-Garrido Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.05 A comparison of public disclosure in archives and libraries using TransPa_BA <p class="p1">Transparency has drawn considerable international attention as an umbrella term covering issues relating to the struggle against corruption, the design of more open and participatory government and institutional, corporate, and social agent accountability. It is likewise associated with open data and guaranteed access to public information. However, transparency also has a second important dimension, viz. public disclosure, whereby institutions are required to furnish citizens with public information in their interest. Assessment of both dimensions of transparency poses problems and difficulties. The present article discusses the results of applying the <em>TransPa_BA</em> tool to assess public disclosure in 202 archives and libraries (information units) under the aegis of different government bodies. This tool proposes a series of indicators to measure active disclosure by public libraries and archives in keeping with the provisions of Spanish <em>Act 19/2013 of 9 December on Transparency, Access to Public Information and Good Governance</em>. The indicators and their respective parameters (content, form, reusability, accessibility, dating and updating/validity) establish general outlines enabling these institutions to enhance their transparency by furnishing not only society in general, but also their stakeholders, with information regarding their activities and performance. Accessibility of active public disclosure-related documents was found to be wanting in all but university libraries. As a collective learning tool for information unit managers, <em>TransPa_BA</em> can be used to monitor and gradually improve transparency in libraries and archives.</p> Ana R. Pacios Sara Martínez Cardama Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.01 Implementation of the transparency laws in Catalonia <p class="p1">Despite theoretical forecasts that have linked transparency policies with improvements in the fight against corruption, increased trust in institutions, and the development of quality in governments, several empirical studies have shown that this connection is not so simple. For it to happen, regulations of sufficient quality must be embedded in a holistic policy of good governance and adequately implemented. The transparency policy cannot generate the desired impacts if it is not implemented in the first place. The transparency policy of the governments of Catalonia does not seem to have had the desired effects, despite being of sufficient quality and being formally inserted in a holistic framework of good governance. The hypothesis this article attempts to test is the weakness of the implementation of <em>Act 19/2014</em> as the cause of the non-existent or piecemeal outcomes. An exhaustive evaluation of the law’s implementation was conducted to test the hypothesis, with five series of surveys in five years (2015–2020) sent to more than 1,000 entities bound by the law, a review of transparency portals, a quality analysis of resolutions on the right of access, a quality analysis of citizens’ charters and codes of conduct, the use of the mystery shopper technique, and in-depth interviews with public decision-makers. The analysis results do not guarantee that the relative failure in impact is due to weak implementation of the law. However, it also cannot be ruled out that failure to implement some aspects of the rule influences its lack of effectiveness.</p> Manuel Villoria Agustí Cerrillo-Martínez Juli Ponce-Solé Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-10 2023-01-10 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.08 Political parties’ influence on the transparency and participation of Spanish municipal websites: the case of Catalonia, the Community of Madrid, the Community of Valencia, and the Region of Murcia <p class="p1">In modern democratic states, citizen participation is promoted through representative channels. In recent years, at the different institutional and political levels in Spain, some classic parameters of democracy have been called into question, such as citizen representation, deliberation, and the responsibility of the rulers towards the citizens. This crisis coincides with a decline in bipartisanship in Spain and the appearance of new parties. Some of this parties championed the regeneration of democracy, committing themselves to encouraging transparency and citizen participation in public management. As local entities are the institutions closest to citizens, both transparency and participation become key elements to comply with these parameters, providing the technologies of information and communication (ICT) with new tools such as websites and portals, which can contribute to strengthening them. This research aims to analyze the use of these channels to promote transparency and citizen participation, by the municipalities of 4 autonomous communities (Catalonia, the Community of Madrid, the Valencian Community, and the Region of Murcia), placing special emphasis on how the left-right axes and old-new parties could influence, along with the population size of the municipalities. The method used consists of a categorical content analysis, based on the <em>Infoparticipa Map</em> indicators and two linear regression models using ordinary least squares. The results and conclusions of the study show that the size of the population and the autonomous community are determining factors in the transparency indices. In addition, the political formations aligned to the left of the ideological spectrum, together with some of the new parties, influence the greater transparency and participation of the websites of the municipalities governed by them.</p> María-Pilar Paricio-Esteban María Puchalt-López María P. García-Alcober Blanca Nicasio-Varea Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-02-01 2023-02-01 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.20 Inflaming public debate: a methodology to determine origin and characteristics of hate speech about sexual and gender diversity on Twitter <p class="p1">This article is focused on the reproduction of ideologically charged messages whose origins or interests remain hidden from public opinion. There is an urgent need for transparency regarding polarised debates that deform, impede or distort the critical approach that any society should be able to construct concerning issues of great social interest, especially on social media platforms and networks. Research has shown that hostility has colonised digital communication through misogynist, homophobic, transphobic or xenophobic messages, among others, and that, for the most part, these are not spontaneous or individual interactions. In the virtual space, there are forces that, although invisible outside it, construct narratives, generate disinformation and feed generally regressive ideological approaches. Thus, in the name of transparency and social justice, there is an urgent need to investigate these types of messages, as well as their possible destabilising interests at a time of special presence and reputation of discourses such as the feminist one, which is currently experiencing a significant reactionary response. This paper investigates the origin and characteristics of the conversation on the social network Twitter concerning gender and sexual identities. To this end, we studied a significant sample of tweets (&gt;1 million) related to women’s rights, the LGBTIQ+ collective and trans people, for a full year. Computerised methodologies by means of machine learning techniques, natural language processing (NLP), determination of bots, geolocation, and the application of network theories were used to carry out the study. The results include the highly interrelated presence of groups without clear referents, as well as the existence of what appear to be coordinated networks aimed at causing harm and provoking confrontation.</p> Sergio Arce-García María-Isabel Menéndez-Menéndez Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.06 From disinformation to fact-checking: How Ibero-American fact-checkers on Twitter combat fake news <p class="p1">In recent years, the disinformation phenomenon, brought about by the ease with which fake news and hoaxes spread on social networks, has grown considerably. <em>Twitter</em>, especially, is a network that from the outset has been closely linked to news processes that are widely used by journalists. It has become a highly efficient means of spreading disinformation owing to its immediacy and capacity to spread contents. The microblogging network has attracted the attention of researchers and is a suitable subject matter for analysing how fact-checkers communicate as agents who nurture digital literacy in the general public to help them spot disinformation. The aim of this research is to characterise the use of <em>Twitter</em> by Ibero-American fact-checkers and to determine to what extent their posting habits influence interaction. To do so, the trending and timing for posts, the type of contents and resources used by each fact-checker and the interactions created on all levels are analysed. This research stated that Ibero-American fact-checkers throughout 2021 were highly active on <em>Twitter</em>. This was closely linked to the crises related to Covid-19. Communications from these organisations have helped to spread and reinforce their fact-checking and digital literacy mission, even though their performance is no more efficient in terms of the scope and impact of their work. The results show that boosting posts of reactive tweets, adjusting posting time to the <em>Twitter</em> dynamics and increasing the use of resources such as images and mentions are useful strategies for promoting interaction.</p> María-Isabel Míguez-González Xabier Martínez-Rolán Silvia García-Mirón Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-11 2023-01-11 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.10 Innovation, digitization, and disinformation management in European regional television stations in the Circom network <p class="p1">The <em>International Cooperative for Research and Action in the Field of Communication</em> (<em>Circom</em>) is an umbrella organization of regional broadcasters in Europe, currently composed of a total of 43 broadcasters from 29 countries. These public service media play a decisive role in information reality owing to their proximity, the cultural development of their communities, and the emotional bond they have with their audiences. This research analyzes the relationship between European regional media, innovation, and digitization processes and the fight against disinformation in the current media context through interviews with <em>Circom</em> network managers. In turn, the resulting sample has been compared with the models of Hallin and Mancini (2004), demonstrating that this classification is not significant in terms of innovation and digitization approaches but is decisive in the analysis of disinformation and the strategies used by the media in each country. Innovation, digitization processes, and business structure have conceptualization problems in solving the pressure that today’s convergent environment exerts on linear television. After analyzing the results, it becomes clear that there is a pressing need to renew and redefine professional profiles, adapt content to different formats, and conquer young audiences, although there is no agreement on the best way to face these challenges.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Talia Rodríguez-Martelo José Rúas-Araújo Isaac Maroto González Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-19 2023-01-19 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.12 Facing the challenges of metaverse: a systematic literature review from social sciences and marketing and communication <p class="p1">The metaverse is the conjunction and optimization of the possibilities of the Internet and technology at their best. It is a consequence of the development and evolution of digital society. Technological innovation, fundamentally oriented toward virtual reality, augmented reality, and mixed realities, contributes significantly to the creation of a solid foundation on which to build an entire universe of virtual worlds. This is a universe that, in turn, requires the creation of backbone content for narratives that attract and retain users by capturing their attention to promote a specific ecosystem that transfers the activities of the real world to a virtual one, either projected or recreated. This research is based on a systematic review of 402 articles and a qualitative analysis of 125 publications. It examines the trends in technology, application, and methodology pertaining to the metaverse in the social sciences field, namely marketing and communication and neuroscience, areas that contribute to the understanding of the social dimension of the metaverse phenomenon. Although there is abundant academic literature on the metaverse in computer science, this is not the case in the aforementioned disciplines. Given that the metaverse is destined to become the next Internet revolution, there is a race among countries and brands to position themselves within it, which is expected to intensify in the coming years. The metaverse can contribute to a wide variety of applications of a social nature, which is why it is a highly competitive tool for nations, companies, and academia, as well as the public and private media. The results indicate a technological transformation proposing a future that includes neuro-technologies based on brain–computer interfaces and the metaverse as the setting. This will occur alongside the solidification of the virtual ecosystem thanks to the emergence of digital natives and Gen Z, as well as the convergence of many different technologies and immersive and participatory content, in which the consumer is the provider, owner, and beneficiary.</p> Verónica Crespo-Pereira Eva Sánchez-Amboage Matías Membiela-Pollán Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-03 2023-01-03 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.02 Women in the documentary industry: Continuing inequality in the streaming age <p class="p1">Assessing women’s role in the audiovisual industry provides us with negative data regarding the number of women in the industry, which are also confirmed when factors such as their prominence or leadership in these audiovisual projects are considered. A quantitative and qualitative analysis was thus undertaken based on the need to examine this problem in depth to determine what is happening in the documentary or nonfiction genre, which has exhibited significant growth thanks to the demand for content from subscription video-on-demand (SVoD) streaming platforms. This research analyzes data on the number, prominence, and leadership of women through a review of the 35 Spanish productions in this genre that were produced and/or distributed exclusively on the three leading platforms in Spain between 2016 and 2021. Accordingly, the 2,099 jobs created by these productions have been evaluated, providing data on the occupations and level of responsibility that women had. The research findings confirm the overall data. In addition, they allow us to determine why, although the documentary genre has been associated with greater opportunities for women, this has not held true within the streaming market, where this genre has achieved a greater impact. This underrepresentation of women is especially prominent in the area of leadership.</p> Jessica Izquierdo-Castillo Emma Torres-Romay Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.07 Activity of universities in social networks. Correlations of rankings, students, followers and interactions <p class="p1">The Internet and social networks are widely used by students. For higher education, which operates in a highly competitive environment, marketing is a fundamental tool for universities to distinguish themselves and attract new students. Social networks are one of the best options for influencing university choice. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between some indicators related to universities and their use of and results on social networks. We carried out quantitative correlational research to study the number of students and ranking position as university indicators as well as the number of followers, posts, and interactions (likes, comments, and shares) weekly and per post on <em>Facebook</em>, <em>Instagram</em>, <em>Twitter</em>, and <em>YouTube</em>. Data were collected from 83 Spanish universities over 14 weeks in 2021. Correlation analysis showed that the number of students is closely related to the number of followers and interactions, although to varying degrees. The position of a university in the rankings exhibited a particularly significant correlation with their number of followers on almost all the networks. In addition, the higher the university in the ranking, the higher the number of interactions per post that it obtained on <em>Facebook </em>and <em>Twitter</em>. It was also found that universities with more followers had more interactions (likes, comments, and shares) with their posts. Finally, the number of posts was found to be positively related to the interactions per week but not to the interactions per post. This study has identified some significant relationships between the characteristics of all Spanish universities and their performance on four social networks, which may help universities become better at acting and communicating on them.</p> Marc Pérez-Bonaventura Carolina Rodríguez-Llorente Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-11 2023-01-11 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.09 Adaptation of the Irscom social profitability indicator to the context of community radio in Colombia <p> </p> <p class="p1">The main objective of this research action is to highlight the process of adaptation, validation, and administration of the <em>Indicator of social profitability in communication</em> (<em>Irscom</em>, <em>Indicador de rentabilidad social en comunicación</em>) for the community and indigenous radio sector of Colombia, a country with over 700 community radio stations nationwide, and the first in Latin America/Abya Yala to legalize them. The <em>Irscom</em>, a registered trademark, was created by the <em>LabCom-Andalucía</em> group of the <em>University of Malaga</em> in 2012. Employing six categories and 33 variables, it reflects the working practice and dynamics of radio stations to achieve their objectives, awarding points subject to weightings and criteria linked to pertinence. A compendium of quantitative (questionnaire, weighting, and rankings) and qualitative methods (focus groups and semi-structured interviews) were applied in its development and administration. The sample for this pilot project (from the <em>Ministry of Culture of Colombia</em>, the <em>Faculty of Communications of the University Minuto de Dios</em>, Bogotá, and <em>LabComAndalucía</em>) consisted of 11 community radio stations, an indigenous community radio station declared to be of public interest, and four community radio networks within the country. The results confirmed that <em>Irscom</em> is an organic tool that, without substantial modifications to the original framework, and although designed for Spain, can be adapted to other international contexts so that different broadcasters may appreciate their strengths and weaknesses. It contributes to holistic reflection on the social profitability of these media within their broadcasting areas. In the short term, <em>Irscom</em> may be extended to other community radio stations in the country. In the medium term, this indicator can help the community and the indigenous sound sector to improve their social profitability and validate their activities with government and institutional agencies to defend their important work of social cohesion and the need for solid sources of financing. It can also contribute to better collective organization by joining interests, with the awarding of the <em>Irscom</em> seal of quality as an endorsement of its implementation and improvements.</p> Lidia Peralta-García Lara Espinar-Medina Manuel Chaparro-Escudero Melba-Patricia Quijano-Triana Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-26 2023-01-26 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.19 Data journalism in Spain and Austria: features, organizational structure, limitations, and future perspectives <p class="p1">This paper makes an important contribution to comparative research by examining data journalism in Spain and Austria. This paper examines the practice of data journalism from a triple perspective: (a) the common features of day-to-day work, (b) the organizational structure and the role of the teams in newsrooms, and (c) the obstacles to and the future of data-driven reporting. Results from content analysis of data-driven news stories in <em>El país</em> and <em>Der standard</em> (<em>N =</em> 136) show differences and similarities in the covered topics, sources, narrative style, visualizations, interactive functions, and levels of transparency. Interestingly, only 36.8% of the analyzed news stories correspond to the normative expectations of transparency by incorporating both sources and methodological details. While the Spanish newspaper shows significantly higher levels of transparency compared with the Austrian newspaper, both newspapers perform very similarly when it comes to providing access to raw data, which was the case in only every fifth news story analyzed. Findings from focused interviews with the heads of data journalism teams deliver interesting insights into specific challenges that each news outlet is facing when creating day-to-day data-driven news stories. This research confirms the relevance that data journalism has achieved in countries such as Spain and demonstrates the effort of journalists in countries without access to information and transparency laws to create data-driven stories.</p> Alba Córdoba-Cabús Brigitte Huber Pedro Farias-Batlle Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-19 2023-01-19 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.16 Monetization of digital newspapers: Experimentation with brand extension and buying influence <p class="p1">With digitization, journalistic companies tested out different ways of creating value through the capabilities that technology provides. Online newspapers applied the experience they had with their print versions to brand extensions, aiming to build revenue models that went beyond the classic models for advertising and charging for content. Their goal was to leverage brand value by expanding their name to a new product. This study focuses on <em>Unidad Editorial</em>, which undertook various initiatives testing the power of the digital brand <em></em> and expanding the boundaries of the business. We use information obtained from 23 semistructured in-depth interviews with executives from the early days of their online business to the present, providing a comprehensive picture. <em></em>’s experimentation with brand extensions and other non-advertising revenue sources helps us understand digital media’s shift towards charging for content –which the Covid-19 pandemic provided a favorable environment for– in their search for alternatives to compensate for the decline in advertising revenue. New brand extension projects, for which brand strength and consistency with the original product are determinative, remain open. In addition, these new practices will be subject to the journalistic companies’ investment capabilities.</p> Luis Sangil Francisco Campos-Freire Francisco J. Pérez-Latre Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-19 2023-01-19 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.15 Trajectories and regimes in research versus knowledge evaluations: Contributions to an evolutionary theory of citation <p class="p1">Citation analysis can provide us with models of the evolutionary dynamics in scholarly and scientific communication. We propose to distinguish between institutional research evaluation (usually, <em>ex post</em>) and knowledge evaluation <em>ex ante</em>, in relation to directionality in citation analysis. We discuss the theoretical literature on communication systems which distinguishes between information and meaning, in which the concept of redundancy plays an important role as measure of the potential of a communication system. This is the basis for a model of knowledge dynamics which differentiates between observable variation and latent selection environments. We use indicators at the journal level and analyze the citation environments of journals in both the cited and citing directions. Among journals, the citing direction can be analyzed by co-citation and indicates the integration of knowledge from different fields. The cited direction can analogously be analyzed by bibliographic coupling and represents the extent to which the cited journal has become relevant for different disciplines, hence indicates knowledge diffusion. We apply this analysis on three different case studies of journal-journal relations: a small scale study of the journal <em>Public Understanding of Science</em>, a random sample of 100 journals, and a large-scale analysis of the set of <em>JCR</em> 2016 journals. Combined, the results seem to confirm the hypothesis that interdisciplinarity cannot be captured by one-dimensional citation analysis. Both citing and cited directions are relevant for knowledge and research evaluations, respectively. We raise the question whether indicators of interdisciplinarity can be developed by combining both directions in citation analysis, indicate further research, and discuss the normative implications of our preliminary results.</p> Loet Leydesdorff Lin Zhang Paul Wouters Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.03 How do journals deal with problematic articles. Editorial response of journals to articles commented in PubPeer <p class="p1">The aim of this article is to explore the editorial response of journals to research articles that may contain methodological errors or misconduct. A total of 17,244 articles commented on in <em>PubPeer</em>, a post-publication peer review site, were processed and classified according to several error and fraud categories. Then, the editorial response (i.e., editorial notices) to these papers were retrieved from <em>PubPeer</em>, <em>Retraction Watch</em>, and <em>PubMed</em> to obtain the most comprehensive picture. The results show that only 21.5% of the articles that deserve an editorial notice (i.e., honest errors, methodological flaws, publishing fraud, manipulation) were corrected by the journal. This percentage would climb to 34% for 2019 publications. This response is different between journals, but cross-sectional across all disciplines. Another interesting result is that high-impact journals suffer more from image manipulations, while plagiarism is more frequent in low-impact journals. The study concludes with the observation that the journals have to improve their response to problematic articles.</p> José-Luis Ortega Lorena Delgado-Quirós Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-23 2023-01-23 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.18 Early career researchers and predatory journals during the Covid-19 pandemic. An international analysis <p class="p1">Around 170 early career researchers (ECRs) from 8 countries were interviewed about the whole range of their scholarly communication attitudes/behaviours during pandemic times and this paper analyses what they said about predatory journals in a wide range of scholarly communication contexts. Because of the delicacy of the topic there was just one question exclusively directed at predatory journals, which asked about policies rather than actions, which yielded nevertheless wide-ranging comments on the topic. ECRs also volunteered information on predatory journals in another half dozen questions, most notably including one on questionable research practices. The source of data was mainly the final interview of three undertaken, with some comparisons made to rounds one and two. Findings disclose the existence of a whole raft of formal and informal assessment policies/coded that direct ECRs to legitimate journals and away from predatory ones. Despite being junior, ECRs are very accultured to the criteria of what is considered as prestige and quality and believe predatory publishing is not even conceivable. They are far more concerned about low-quality research, preprints and borderline ‘grey’ journals. The pandemic has increased the level of questionable practices and low-quality research, but predatory journals were only singled out by a relatively small number of ECRs.</p> David Nicholas Blanca Rodríguez-Bravo Cherifa Boukacem-Zeghmouri Eti Herman David Clark Jie Xu Abdullah Abrizah Marzena Świgoń Anthony Watkinson David Sims Hamid R. Jamali Carol Tenopir Suzie Allard Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-24 2023-01-24 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.17 Professional dynamics between journalists and politicians: Professional routines and assessment of trust and credibility generated by Spanish congressional spokespersons in the specialized press (2019-2022) <p class="p1">This article deals with the interactions between and opinions of parliamentary journalists covering the Spanish Congress of Deputies regarding their main source of information –the spokespersons of the parliamentary groups. This quantitative and qualitative study is based on both data obtained through a survey as well as semistructured personal interviews. The results have made it possible, among other aspects, to identify the patterns of behavior and frequency of relationships between media professionals and spokespersons; to recognize which of their skills are most appreciated by reporters; to evaluate the levels of empathy, trust, and credibility generated by the different political representatives in journalists; and finally, to establish a statistical correlation between the empathy–trust and trust–credibility variables to determine the level of effectiveness of the messages issued by parliamentary representatives. The study found that journalists find satisfaction with their work and with the level of recognition of the media they represent; they consider that the information they generate has importance for society, although with a limited social influence; that empathy, clarity, and credibility are the three most valued attributes of the parliamentary spokesperson; and that the perception of parliamentary spokespersons is acceptable. Finally, despite the criticism that the media sometimes receive for their ideological and biased interpretation of the news, no appreciable bias was found in the responses referring to the ideology of the spokesperson and the editorial line of the media to which the journalists surveyed belong, an issue related to their professionalism, independence, and objectivity, which are key to the economic and financial development of a country.</p> Antonio Baraybar-Fernández Sandro Arrufat-Martin Belén Díaz-Díaz Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.14 Data without reference points: collaborations in communication research in Spain are less international and publications have lower impact <p class="p1">Although comparisons are unpopular, they help to establish standard frames of reference to assess the situation of individuals, institutions, or countries. In the field of communication, the meta-research has been prolific in examining the current state of its production, but has ignored the need to compare what this research is with respect to what it should be, thus offering descriptions without reference points. During the last decade in Spain, have the co-authorships in communication been international? And perhaps even more importantly, has the published output been top-tier? Thisstudy tries to answer these gaps in the literature by comparing communication research in Spain with two broad frames of reference: the set of all sciences and the set of all social sciences. The results show that, when compared with these two macro references, communication research collaborations lack international cooperation and are quite solitary. Similarly, communication research releases fewer publications in the first quartile but more in the second, third, and fourth quartiles. The study suggests that research in terms of international collaboration and level of publication output is below the expected standard and emphasizes the need to establish comparative frameworks to assess and evaluate the state of the field beyond descriptive or headline data (as in this article).</p> Manuel Goyanes Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-11 2023-01-11 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.11 Open access: a journey from impossible to probable, but still uncertain <p class="p1">An overview of the evolution of open access (OA) to scientific publications over the last 20 years is presented. This retrospective look allows us to make two observations that seem to overlap: on the one hand, how close the initial objective seems to be to what initially seemed utopian and, on the other, the unanticipated and solid obstacles that open access has encountered along the way, as well as the unexpected and diverse solutions that are emerging to overcome them. The overall assessment of OA is positive, and it underscores that open access is (or is becoming) possible, that it is good, and that it is necessary. However, this overall positive evolution has come up against two major obstacles that are slowing its progress: the double payments generated by hybrid journals (subscription and article processing charges [APCs]) and the unchecked growth in APCs. In addition, this intensive use of APCs is creating a publishing gap between publishers that charge fees to authors and those that do not, and ultimately, it is causing dissension regarding the (previously shared) strategy toward open access. There are no immediate, one-off solutions to overcome the aforementioned dysfunctions, although three actions that, in the medium term, can remedy them can be mentioned: changing the approach to the evaluation of science, adopting measures to regulate APCs, and promoting alternative publication models. Finally, it should be noted that OA has acted as the vanguard and spearhead of a broader movement: that of open science.</p> Lluís Anglada Ernest Abadal Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2023-01-17 2023-01-17 32 1 10.3145/epi.2023.ene.13