Profesional de la información <p><strong><em>Profesional de la información</em></strong> es una revista sobre comunicación, información, indicadores, bibliotecas y tecnologías de la información.</p> <div>Factor de impacto JCR: JIF 2020 = 2,253</div> <div>Scopus/<a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago Journal Rank</a>: SJR 2021 = 0,831 (Q1)</div> Ediciones Profesionales de la Información SL es-ES Profesional de la información 1386-6710 <div class="gmail_quote"> <div class="gmail_default"> <p><strong>Condiciones de difusión de los artículos una vez son publicados</strong></p> <p><strong>Los autores pueden publicitar sus artículos de acuerdo con estos términos:<br />a) Artículos acogidos a la opción <em>Open choice</em> mediante el pago de APC</strong><br />1. Inmediatamente:<br />Enviar un número ilimitado de copias del pdf por correo electrónico.<br />2. Pasadas <strong>2 semanas desde la publicación</strong> (tiempo necesario para que <em>Google</em> indexe la versión de la web de la revista), los autores pueden ofrecer en sus webs (personales o institucionales) o en cualquier repositorio de acceso abierto (OA) una copia del trabajo publicado por <em>EPI</em>. Deberán respetarse sin embargo, las siguientes condiciones:<br />- Solo deberá hacerse pública<strong> la versión editorial</strong>. Rogamos que no se publiquen preprints, postprints o pruebas de imprenta.<br />- Junto con esa copia ha de incluirse una <strong>mención específica</strong> de la publicación en la que ha aparecido el texto, añadiendo además un enlace clicable a la URL: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p><strong>b) Artículos publicados gratuitamente</strong><br />1. Inmediatamente:<br />Enviar un número ilimitado de copias del pdf por correo electrónico.<br />2. Pasados <strong>12 meses desde la publicación</strong> los autores pueden ofrecer en sus webs (personales o institucionales) o en cualquier repositorio de acceso abierto (OA) una copia del trabajo publicado por <em>EPI</em>.<br />Deberán respetarse las mismas condiciones descritas en el apartado a), es decir:<br />- Solo deberá hacerse pública la <strong>versión editorial definitiva</strong>. Rogamos que no se publiquen preprints, postprints o pruebas de imprenta.<br />- Junto con esa copia ha de incluirse una <strong>mención específica</strong> de la publicación en la que ha aparecido el texto, añadiendo además un enlace clicable a la URL: <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> <p>La revista <em>Profesional de la información</em> ofrece los artículos en acceso abierto con una licencia Creative Commons BY <img src="" />.</p> </div> </div> <div class="gmail_quote"> <div> </div> </div> Brussels will pay for everything. The shaping of the European public sphere before NextGenerationEU <p class="p1">The Covid-19 pandemic meant challenges in crisis management for democratic institutions such as the European Union (EU). To achieve an economic and social recovery to the crisis, the EU institutions have promoted the <em>NextGenerationEU</em> (<em>NGEU</em>) program, a massive recovery package for this purpose. This action takes place at a time of strong visibility of Euroscepticism within a global phenomenon of distrust in political authorities. The present work aims to know the shaping of the European Public Sphere when <em>NGEU</em> is launched. First, the evolution of EU support during the pandemic is described, analyzing the possible factors that influence on this variable. On this matter, a secondary analysis of data is applied on different waves of the <em>Eurobarometer</em> (<em>EB</em> <em>92</em>, <em>93</em>, <em>94</em> and <em>95</em>). The statistical method is also used to give items that determine the image of the EU. Moreover, the communicative dissemination of this plan is drawing upon semi-structured interviews with some of the professionals who deal with the task. The objective is to provide an overview of how the public sphere made up of citizens and institutions is defined before a moment of symbolic relevance. The results reveal a trend towards greater positivity with the EU after the pandemic. However, among other possible factors, the degree of support depends on the ideological position and, to a lesser extent, on the type of community where the citizens live. EU officials assess this rise of Europeanism as an opportunity, targeting the <em>NGEU</em> communication campaign especially at young people.</p> Rubén Rivas-de-Roca Mar García-Gordillo Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.01 Injecting disinformation into public space: pseudo-media and reality-altering narratives <p class="p1">This paper analyses the context of disinformation in Spain from the perspective of the pseudo-media (i.e., websites that mimic conventional media to offer partisan content based on alternative facts). Using a quantitative (<em>N</em> = 1,143) and qualitative (<em>n</em> = 396) methodology, this research analyses publications from eight Spanish pseudo-media that reach more than 4 million unique users. Results reveal an interest in three topics: vaccination, restrictions and speculation about Covid-19, national politics –focused on criticism against government– and topics related to human rights –mainly LGBTI, gender, immigration– with a total of 58.1% of the content published in four sections (International, Spain, Society, and Economy). The study reveals a growing trend towards polarisation and the use of clickbait techniques in four out of ten headlines. The Internet and social media are the most common sources quoted, while a third of the items lack sources or correspond to opinion pieces. Minorities and vulnerable groups are framed as a social threat, and the presentation of the coalition government as a danger to Spain that must be put to an end, which makes the discourse of these websites in tune with the ideology of the far right wing.</p> Dolors Palau Sampio Adolfo Carratalá Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.12 The Internet, populism, and deliberative democracy: A panel study of 167 countries from 2000 to 2018 <p class="p1">The wide adoption of the Internet gave rise to populism, which is regarded as a critical threat to deliberative democracy. This paper was a cross-national panel study to explore the Internet’s populist impacts on deliberative democracy. It had two specific objectives. One was to examine whether or to what extent Internet penetration has populist impacts on deliberative dimensions, including reasoned justification, common good, respectful counterarguments, range of consultation, and engaged society. The other was to examine how Internet penetration moderates a country’s formal deliberative process, referring to the interaction among state institutions, the public sphere, and civil society. Using data from <em>Varieties of Democracy</em> (<em>V-Dem</em>) and the <em>United Nations</em>, we run panel analyses with a sample of 3,173 units in 167 countries from 2000 to 2018. The results showed that Internet penetration increased calls for the common good, disrespected counterarguments, narrowed the range of consultation, and expanded engagement in public deliberation. In addition, Internet penetration strengthened the effects of public sphere on reasoned justification and range of consultation, but weakened the effects of civil society on reasoned justification, common good, respectful counterarguments, and range of consultation.</p> Jia Lu Zikun Liu Jing Jin Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.02 Technology and democracy: the who and how in decision-making. The cases of Estonia and Catalonia <p class="p1">This paper focusses on the use of technology to improve democracy, comparing the cases of Estonia and Catalonia. Both examples are closely related in their use of technology to further democratize the decision-making processes, but have opposite starting points. Estonia’s internet voting system is an offshoot of the comprehensive e-governance system developed by the Estonian government. It is meant to make it more convenient for people to vote and, thus, easier for them to take part in elections. In Catalonia, the online participation system <em>Decidim</em>, initially set up in the city of Barcelona, represents a bottom-up project that emerged from the 15 May protests and aims to make the representative democratic system more direct and participatory. In our comparison we approach both paradigmatic cases from a theoretical reflection on the ideal types of democracy in relation to how decisions are made and by whom. Both projects have evolved and integrated new features that draw them together. First, internet voting is able to reach wider portions of society and digitally transform the Public Administration. Second, online participation platforms increase the potential for collecting citizens’ proposals and enriching discussions. These features make them more like a mixed model which, in the current model of representative democracy, creates spaces for a more direct and deliberative democracy.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Rosa Borge Joaquim Brugué David Duenas-Cid Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.11 Third-order election. Spanish political parties’ communication on Facebook during the 2019 European Parliament election campaign <p class="p1">The 2019 <em>European Parliament</em> elections were held in Spain in a context of political fragmentation and polarisation, following the recent incorporation of the extreme right into the national parliament. Elections to the <em>European Parliament</em> are considered second-order elections and are sometimes used by citizens to cast a punishment vote, favouring new political actors of a contestatary character to gain visibility. Social media networks such as <em>Facebook</em> play an important role because they offer these parties a space where they can disseminate their messages on equal terms, beyond media control. This study conducts a content analysis of the posts published on <em>Facebook</em> by Spanish national political parties in the month prior to the 2019 local, regional and European elections. The main goal is to analyse the communication strategy used by Spanish political parties in this social media, in order to find out the importance given by the parties to the European elections and whether there are differences in strategy at each level. The results reveal that the European elections are a third-order election for Spanish parties, behind local elections. Most parties practice a dual campaign, in which the topics, goals and emotions posted on <em>Facebook</em> vary according to the political level at which they are targeted. This tendency is more pronounced in populist parties and seems to be shaped by the national political context and aimed at matching the concerns of Spaniards at the European level. Despite the incorporation of the extreme right into the Spanish political chessboard, the negative Eurosceptic discourse is only present in the two populist parties and does not affect the rest of the political forces.</p> Vicente Fenoll Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-20 2022-05-20 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.06 Astroturfing as a strategy for manipulating public opinion on Twitter during the pandemic in Spain <p class="p1">This work aims to establish whether astroturfing was used during the Covid-19 pandemic to manipulate Spanish public opinion through <em>Twitter</em>. This study analyzes tweets published in Spanish and geolocated in the Philippines, and its first objective is to determine the existence of an organized network that directs its messages mainly towards Spain. To determine the non-existence of a random network, a preliminary collection of 1,496,596 tweets was carried out. After determining its 14 main clusters, 280 users with a medium-low profile of participation and micro- and nano-influencer traits were randomly selected and followed for 103 days, for a total of 309,947 tweets. Network science, text mining, sentiment and emotion, and bot probability analyses were performed using <em>Gephi</em> and <em>R</em>. Their network structure suggests an ultra-small-world phenomenon, which would determine the existence of a possible organized network that tries not to be easily identifiable. The data analyzed confirm a digital communication scenario in which astroturfing is used as a strategy aimed at manipulating public opinion through non-influencers (cybertroops). These users create and disseminate content with proximity and closeness to different groups of public opinion, mixing topics of general interest with disinformation or polarized content.</p> Sergio Arce-García Elías Said-Hung Daría Mottareale-Calvanese Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.10 Marcos comunicativos en la estrategia online de los partidos políticos europeos durante la crisis del coronavirus: una mirada poliédrica a la extrema derecha <p class="p1">El debate presente en la esfera académica acerca del papel de los partidos de extrema derecha durante la pandemia del coronavirus se extiende a su aspecto comunicativo. Mientras algunos autores sostienen que estos partidos han enfocado sus mensajes desde la perspectiva del miedo, la amenaza inmigrante o la conspiración, de manera poco fructífera, llegando a considerarse incluso como los ‘perdedores de la crisis’, otros hacen hincapié en su capacidad para construir un sentido de comunidad a través de la resiliencia. La presente investigación tiene por objeto retomar estas discusiones y profundizar en el estudio de los marcos comunicativos de los partidos políticos europeos, con especial atención a la extrema derecha, en aras de obtener conclusiones más matizadas. Para ello, se ha ejecutado una doble metodología a través de la codificación de los <em>frames</em> empleados en el total de las 2.757 publicaciones de <em>Twitter</em>, de los partidos mayoritarios de gobierno y de los de extrema derecha de Alemania, Francia, España y Polonia, correspondientes a marzo de 2020. Los resultados apuntan a que los partidos estudiados presentan diferencias en sus marcos comunicativos no en función de su adscripción a un espectro ideológico, como podría caber esperar, sino de su papel como poder ejecutivo en el Gobierno o en la oposición de sus respectivas cámaras legislativas.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Jorge Tuñón-Navarro Sergio López-Álvarez Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.13 Emergencia del populismo en España: marcos metafóricos de Vox y de su comunidad online durante las elecciones generales de 2019 <p class="p1">En un contexto de inestabilidad política –marcado por la convocatoria de cuatro elecciones generales entre 2015 y 2019–, el partido populista <em>Vox</em> ha conseguido entrar en uno de los parlamentos que hasta el momento se le había resistido y que lo mantenía alejado de la tendencia de crecimiento de la extrema derecha en Europa. La consideración del populismo y de la presencia de partidos de extrema derecha como un barómetro potencial de la salud de la democracia representativa hace necesario entender cómo estas formaciones construyen su discurso y cómo lo diseminan a través de las redes. Con el objetivo de identificar las ideas fuerza que guiaron la campaña online de <em>Vox</em> y de conocer cómo se articula su comunidad analizamos tanto la morfología de la red (n1=1.674.681) como su discurso en <em>Twitter</em> durante los dos periodos de campaña electoral en 2019. Las muestras (n2=511) y (n3=892) se componen de la totalidad de tweets publicados por <em>Vox</em>, por su candidato a la presidencia, Santiago Abascal, y por los principales perfiles de su comunidad online. Se han analizado siguiendo la metodología del <em>Critical Metaphor Analysi</em>s, que nos permite aproximarnos de forma cualitativa al contenido de los mensajes y establecer si los rasgos característicos de la comunicación política populista están presentes en los mismos. Los resultados muestran que la estrategia de la organización en ambas campañas se desarrolló bajo los marcos metafóricos de “la dictadura progre” como oposición a “la España viva/del pladur/del sentido común”, amenazada por “salvajes”, “golpistas” y “medios <em>fake</em>” y que esta estructura se difundió parcialmente entre su comunidad online.</p> Arantxa Capdevila Carlota M. Moragas-Fernández Josep M. Grau-Masot Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.17 Twitter content curation as an antidote to hybrid warfare during Russia’s invasion of Ukraine <p class="p1">Concern regarding information disorders has been magnified by the proliferation of social networks. Since its occupation of Crimea in 2014, Russia has been spewing disinformation both inside and outside its borders, giving rise to a hybrid conflict, which since 24 February 2022 has become an invasion. Faced with this flood of malicious information on social networks, fact-checkers assume the role of content curators, relying on contextualization, verification, and literacy improvement to reduce such noise. This work studies the <em>Twitter</em> activity of three Spanish fact-checkers (<em>Newtral</em>, <em>EFE Verifica</em>, and <em>Maldito Bulo</em>), to fight this new epidemic of disinformation. The sample (<em>n</em> = 397) was subjected to content analysis to study the evolution of the verifications and their reaction capacity, the purpose of their activity, the formats in which the content is presented, and their distribution and interaction as revealed by reactions on <em>Twitter</em>. The results reveal a rapid, albeit repetitive, response of the fact-checkers to the invasion, support from them to end the internationalization of hoaxes, a reliance on denials and contextualization rather than literacy improvement, unattractive formats, and a distribution and impact that demonstrate a greater reaction to sensational and emotive content.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Noemí Morejón-Llamas Pablo Martín-Ramallal Juan Pablo Micaletto-Belda Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-25 2022-05-25 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.08 Comunicación mediática y social en el entorno de crisis, polarización e inconformismo colombiano <p class="p1">La industria de la comunicación en Colombia ha impulsado a lo largo de la última década un proceso de transformación y diseño de nuevas propuestas tanto en medios tradicionales como en nativos digitales, gama de estrategias operativas para distribuir formatos textuales, sonoros y visuales a través de las redes sociales, adaptando los contenidos a las particularidades y atributos de cada una de ellas. La irrupción de la implementación de los acuerdos de paz, la pandemia y el inconformismo ciudadano llevado a las calles han servido para constatar la dimensión real de esa reconfiguración, así como su efectividad en términos de credibilidad y alcance ante un escenario inédito que ha transformado la interacción social y cultural de los ciudadanos a través de la tecnología. Esta investigación centra su atención en la respuesta de los agentes periodísticos colombianos a la demanda de información durante el periodo 2019, 2020 y 2021, desde una metodología mixta cuantitativo-descriptiva que permite identificar, cuantificar y valorar la relación entre periódicos, emisoras de radio y canales de televisión con las nuevas plataformas. El corpus del estudio está compuesto por las publicaciones en redes sociales de los medios colombianos con mayor difusión según la <em>Asociación Colombiana de Investigación de Medios</em>: dos periódicos (<em>El tiempo</em> y <em>El espectador</em>), cinco cadenas de radio (<em>Caracol radio</em>, <em>W radio</em>, <em>Blu radio</em>, <em>RCN radio</em> y <em>La FM</em>) y los informativos de las dos cadenas televisivas de mayor audiencia (<em>Noticias Caracol</em> y <em>Noticias RCN</em>). Los resultados del estudio evidencian un refuerzo de la marca de la empresa periodística como referente de información y credibilidad, no obstante, la coyuntura del momento no ha servido para legitimar el papel de los periodistas en las redes sociales, y ha subrayado la fragilidad de un ecosistema mediático muy expuesto a la polarización, la manipulación y la desconfianza.</p> Andrés Barrios-Rubio Maria Gutiérrez-García Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.20 Legal and criminal prosecution of disinformation in Spain in the context of the European Union <p class="p1">Disinformation poses a very important and growing risk to our society, either alone or in association with other hybrid threats, which is being addressed at both the international and European Union (EU) as well as national level. Within the EU, a multidisciplinary and cooperative approach has been advocated between all the actors involved, in contrast to the strong regulatory perspective traditionally adopted in the history of European integration within the EU framework. For this reason, together with the inherent limitations imposed by the nature of the right to freedom of expression and information on any possible administrative censorship or criminal punishment, Spain has adopted only one recent regulation (<em>Decree PCM/1030/2020</em>) to establish the Spanish procedure to combat disinformation as required by European directive. Moreover, although fake news cannot be prosecuted directly in Spain outside the scope of crimes against the market and consumers, fake news can include very different types of criminal offence depending on the content and the intention with which it is disseminated. We illustrate these possibilities through some recent judicial decisions on this matter and declarations by the Office of the Attorney-General. It remains to be seen whether this soft approach to combating disinformation will be sufficient to combat this new plague on our contemporary society effectively.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Carlos Espaliú-Berdud Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-16 2022-06-16 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.22 Las innovaciones periodísticas más destacadas en España (2010-2020): características e impacto organizacional, industrial y social <p class="p1">La aparición de nuevos actores y plataformas tecnológicas, los cambios en los hábitos de consumo y la transformación del ecosistema digital han acelerado el proceso de innovación periodística en la última década (2010-2020), acentuado por la pandemia por Covid-19. El periodismo atraviesa desde hace años un proceso de cambio permanente que afecta a las prácticas, los productos y los profesionales. Este estudio identifica las innovaciones periodísticas más destacadas, describe sus características y analiza su impacto en función del valor aportado en la organización, de su alcance en la industria y de su contribución a la sociedad. Se han realizado entrevistas semiestructuradas a un grupo de expertos (n=22), integrado por académicos y profesionales. Codificadas y sumadas las innovaciones (n=60) de un total de 253 menciones, se analiza el alcance de las mismas en los tres ámbitos –organización, industria y sociedad– para obtener el listado de las 20 más relevantes. Los resultados indican que la innovación surge de forma incremental en cómo se produce, organiza, distribuye y sostiene el periodismo. Algunas innovaciones han influido de manera sustancial en la organización y en la sociedad, como el modelo de socios o el <em>fact-checking</em>; sin embargo están aún lejos de ser adoptadas de modo generalizado en la industria. El periodismo de datos se ha catalogado como la innovación periodística más relevante por implicar cambios en la producción, generar un periodismo de calidad e impulsar su adopción por otros agentes del sector.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> Miguel Carvajal Dámaso Mondéjar José M. Valero-Pastor Alicia De-Lara José A. García-Avilés Félix Arias-Robles Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.04 Profile of digital slow journalism audiences in Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico <p class="p1">The aim of this work is to study slow journalism audiences, with a particular interest in Latin America, specifically Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico. Five case studies were carried out, covering <em>Anfibia </em>(Argentina),<em> Arcadia </em>(Colombia),<em> Gatopardo </em>(Mexico),<em> La silla vacía </em>(Colombia), and<em> Letras libres </em>(Mexico), along with a Delphi study (double round with 27 participants) and a structured questionnaire (of 1,500 people between the ages of 18 and 65 years). The results indicate that 75% of the surveyed population obtain their information from all kinds of digital media, among whom 84% use social media for this purpose. Slow journalism is still mainly unknown to a large fraction (17%) of the population, although once given its definition and some named examples, 40% of those surveyed claimed to have read the slow press at some time. Quality is the main reason for its consumption (62%), followed by searching for specific subjects (46%), especially for young people (65%) and in Colombia (52%). Experts in slow journalism agree that the key to consolidating an audience involves listening to and interacting with its members, together with their active participation in the media.</p> Carmen Peñafiel-Saiz Miren Manias-Muñoz Itsaso Manias-Muñoz Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-19 2022-05-19 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.07 La voz del periodismo en las redes sociales: cartografía y funciones del community manager de medios informativos como nuevo actor de la comunicación periodística <p class="p1">El periodismo ha encontrado en las redes sociales un vehículo de comunicación con la audiencia para mantenerla diariamente informada de los contenidos que publica. Para gestionar esa relación se hace indispensable la figura del <em>community manager</em>, un profesional vinculado directamente a los estudios de Ciencias de la Información, especialmente del periodismo y de la publicidad. La metodología es de carácter cualitativo partiendo de la Teoría fundamentada. El procedimiento elegido para la recolección de datos consistió en la realización de trece entrevistas telefónicas a <em>community managers</em> de medios españoles de gran prestigio, las cuales fueron tratadas y codificadas con el paquete de análisis <em>Atlas.ti</em> en su versión 8.4.3. Las funciones de los <em>community managers</em> periodísticos son muy dispares y están en constante evolución. Predomina la percepción de que la calidad del contenido publicado en las redes sociales debe prevalecer respecto a la búsqueda de resultados en forma de clics y de interacciones, en un entorno en el que la información se consume a gran velocidad y donde es más difícil destacar respecto a la competencia. Se concluye que el periodismo digital no ha de recurrir a las redes sociales únicamente como simples intermediarias hacia las webs oficiales, debe generar una comunidad de usuarios que se interese por el medio y por la actualidad. A pesar del ruido comunicativo, las plataformas digitales se ven como beneficiosas para el medio, y como un vehículo eficaz para mantener informada a la audiencia a través de la gestión diaria del <em>community manager</em> como voz oficial del medio.</p> Alberto Martín-García Álex Buitrago Ignacio Aguaded Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.03 How do legacy and digital media curate coronavirus content. An assessment of newsletters from the USA and four European countries <p class="p1">This study focuses on the curation of newsletters specialized in Covid-19 news from the mass media of France, Germany, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the USA. The newsletters of 21 media outlets –15 traditional and six digital natives– were studied during the peaks of the pandemic in April and November 2020. The study follows an evaluative method of curation quality, based on the analysis of the following parameters: number of curated contents, time range, origin, sources –according to organization type and morphology–, authorship, sense-making techniques, and hyperlink informational function. The results identify the main characteristics of news curation in these newsletters and their differences from general newsletters, as well as the sources used, and also make it possible to establish curation quality standings and to identify differences between countries and among legacy and pure digital news outlets.</p> Javier Guallar Pere Franch Juan-José Boté-Vericad Laura Anton Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.18 WhatsApp and audio misinformation during the Covid-19 pandemic <p class="p1">Given user choices and the commercial offerings of internet providers, <em>WhatsApp</em> has increasingly become established as a new standard for communication by audio, image, and text. This paper explores the role of misinformation during the Covid-19 pandemic by using content disseminated through <em>WhatsApp</em>, thereby making three main contributions: a discussion about the potential shift toward nontextual and nonvisual forms of misinformation; the new social role of audio, namely related to the critique of policies and political actors during the early stage of the Covid-19 pandemic; and the questioning of the First Draft News disinformation conceptual model by proposing a complementary approach that focuses only on factuality. Conclusions were drawn after conducting a content analysis of 988 units of Covid-19-related audio files, images, videos, and texts shared via <em>WhatsApp</em> during the early stage of the pandemic. A typology was identified to address distinct claims that focus on five different topics (society, policy and politics, health science, pandemic, and other), as well as audio messaging trending as a novel format for spreading misinformation. The results help us to contextualize and discuss a potential shift toward nontextual and nonvisual forms of misinformation, reflecting the increasing adoption of the audio format among <em>WhatsApp</em> users and making <em>WhatsApp</em> a fertile environment for the circulation and dissemination of misinformation regarding Covid-19-related themes. In a society characterized by the rapid consumption of information, the idea that content must have a degree of falsehood to mislead is an indicator of the distance between theoretical models and social reality. This indicator is important to identify true content as potential misinformation on the basis of its factuality.</p> Gustavo Cardoso Rita Sepúlveda Inês Narciso Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-17 2022-06-17 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.21 YouTube como herramienta para el aprendizaje informal <p class="p1">Las redes sociales son medios digitales utilizados con frecuencia por la gran mayoría de la población. Su popularidad ha facilitado su uso en múltiples áreas como el aprendizaje. Tal es el caso de <em>YouTube</em>, una de las redes sociales más empleadas para ello. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo descubrir las valoraciones de las características de <em>YouTube</em> como medio de aprendizaje informal atendiendo a las variables: género, formación y edad. Se trata de un estudio cuantitativo que incluye análisis descriptivos e inferenciales. La recogida de datos se lleva a cabo mediante un cuestionario elaborado <em>ad hoc</em> que incluye dos dimensiones: instrumental y pedagógica. Los datos se obtienen a través de <em>Google Forms</em>. La muestra se compone de 504 personas de 14 a 60 años pertenecientes a Andalucía (España). Los resultados muestran una alta valoración de las características de <em>YouTube</em> como recurso educativo informal por parte de la población estudio de ambas dimensiones observadas. Destacan aspectos instrumentales como el aprendizaje rápido y la adaptación del aprendizaje a tiempos y espacios deseados, y aspectos pedagógicos como el uso de dispositivos móviles como mediadores del aprendizaje (<em>mlearning</em>), su personalización mediante la elección del instructor y la exploración de diversas formas. El análisis inferencial arroja diferencias estadísticamente significativas en función del género en la valoración de los canales temáticos existentes en <em>YouTube</em>, y la formación en items ligados a la practicidad del aprendizaje. La edad resultó la variable con mayor influencia, presentando diferencias en la mayoría de los elementos evaluados.</p> Pilar Colás-Bravo Iván Quintero-Rodríguez Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-13 2022-06-13 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.15 Drivers and barriers in the transition to open science: the perspective of stakeholders in the Spanish scientific community <p class="p1">This paper presents the results of a research study whose objective was to identify the facilitating factors and barriers that, in the opinion of representatives of the Spanish scientific community, impact the implementation of the new open science model in four areas: open access, open research data, research assessment and open peer review. A qualitative study was designed in which information was obtained through interviews with researchers, editors of scientific journals, representatives of assessment agencies and vice-chancellors, and through a focus group of librarians with expertise in aspects of open science. The enabling factors and barriers identified were related to the researcher and the fruit of their research, as well as to the scientific ecosystem, which provides direct institutional support and backing (universities/research centres), the regulatory framework (management of the science system) and the science communication system (media). The results indicate that a shift in scientific practices toward the open science model can only be achieved if there is a policy framework that integrates all initiatives and links into the scientific assessment and reward system, and if the necessary funding is in place to support this transition.</p> Aurora González-Teruel Alexandre López-Borrull Gema Santos-Hermosa Francisca Abad-García Candela Ollé Rocío Serrano-Vicente Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-17 2022-05-17 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.05 Structural analysis and evolutionary exploration based on the research topic network of a field: a case in high-frequency trading <p class="p1">This study aims to systematically analyze the distribution dynamics of research topics and uncover the development state of the research in the specific field, which will provide a practical reference for developing professional subject knowledge services in the era of big data. The research topic network is constructed and analyzed using methods and tools of scientometrics. Basic statistics on network characteristics are performed to reveal the research status. Community detection, node ordering, and other steps are conducted to generate the evolutionary alluvial diagram. Then, relevant results are analyzed to explore the knowledge structure of the specific field and evolutionary context of research topics. Visualization analysis on the network structure of the latest period is executed to distinguish related concepts and predict the research trends. Taking high-frequency trading (HFT) as a case, this study achieves diversified scientometrics analysis of the research topic network and multi-dimensional evolution exploration of the relevant research topics in the specific field, which obtaining some knowledge insights. (1) Six major topics in HFT: liquidity &amp; market microstructure, market efficiency, financial market, incomplete market, cointegration &amp; price discovery, and event study. (2) The research focus about markets gradually transferred from international to emerging, meanwhile continuous attention to volatility/risk related issues. (3) The emphasis will change from theory to practice, technologies (big data, etc.) and theories (behavioral finance, etc.) will have more interaction with HFT. An effective research idea is proposed to reveal the knowledge structure of field and analyze the evolutionary context of research topics, which demonstrating the knowledge insights.</p> Mengran Xia Han Huang Hongyu Wang Jing Lin Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.14 The (in)visibility of women in the press specializing in literature: an analysis of the presence of women writers in Spanish cultural supplements <p class="p1">This paper aims to dissect the presence of female writers in the main four cultural supplements of Spanish reference press: <em>Babelia</em> (<em>El país</em>), <em>Cultura|s</em> (<em>La vanguardia</em>), <em>El cultural</em> (<em>El mundo</em>) and <em>ABC cultural</em> (<em>ABC</em>). For this, we analyzed the “books of the year” recommended between 2010 and 2021 (n = 1,286), as well as the juries in charge of elaborating these ranks. The results show the subsidiary role reserved for women in this sphere of cultural informtion: they barely author 25.3% of the selected books, although some degree is progress is observed in the historical series, after going from 4.8% in 2011 to 37.8% in 2020. The increase in the presence of women in the juries has contributed to this phenomenon –the correlation between ratio of women in both lists being statiscally significant (<em>r<sub>s </sub></em>= 0.647, p &lt; 0.001)–, together with the commitment of supplement such as <em>Babelia </em>and <em>Cultura|s</em> to literature written by women. On the contrary, there still seem to be pockets of exclusion in <em>El cultural</em> and <em>ABC cultural</em>, which reduce the visibility of work of female writers in Spain. According to our findings, women authors stand out for their youth (they are between 8 and 20 years younger than men, depending on the indicator), cosmopolitism (there are more foreign female writers, especially American, than Spanish) and origin (mainly, Madrid and Barcelona). This article evinces the collective imaginary, settled for centuries, by which literature was considered a men’s affair, and reflects on the role of cultural journalism and its prescriptive function when it comes to breaking down gender stereotype –a task that, in view of the data provided in this paper, is still far from been completed.</p> Manuel García-Borrego Bernardo Gómez-Calderón Juan García-Cardona Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-15 2022-06-15 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.19 Letter: Central nodes in the reform of the Spanish Universities Law <p class="p1">The recent presentation of the definitive Bill for the Organic Law of the Spanish University System was preceded by a long process of consultation and negotiation with the university community, and its starting point can be found in a qualitative study carried out by the authors of this letter. That research work aimed to reveal the positions of the different sectors involved in the universities in terms of the three nodes which had been defined by the <em>Ministry for Universities</em> as strategic: finance, governance, and professional advancement. This letter aims to compare these positions with the definitive articles of the Bill, in addition to situating the final governance design within the European regulatory framework. It highlights the uniqueness of the Spanish model in a context of reform that is strongly influenced by the ideals of New Public Management.</p> Igor Ahedo-Gurrutxaga jone Martínez-Palacios Andere Ormazabal-Gaston Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información 2022-05-23 2022-05-23 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.09 Communication and crisis in the public space: Dissolution and uncertainty <p class="p1">The evolution from a public space such as the one defined throughout the twentieth century –characterised by unidirectionality and political and media intermediation– towards a digital scenario –with multiple actors and multi-directional messages– has not resolved the problems that existed beforehand, and has also generated others. This public space crisis has been aggravated by the fragmentation of audiences, often absorbed into their own echo chamber, and by the dispersion and jumble of voices that are an impediment to any possibility of unravelling the terms of public debate. Faced with enormous challenges such as disinformation, the conventional media, who have traditionally held the responsibility of providing quality information, address these issues from a position of extreme vulnerability, due to the disintegration of the former economic model and social credibility. In a context of uncertainty, crisis, and fragmented public spheres, and there being no alternatives that can guarantee distinct dialogue, the initiation of a social debate that prioritises quality of information is essential.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> Dolors Palau-Sampio Guillermo López-García Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información 2022-06-06 2022-06-06 31 3 10.3145/epi.2022.may.16