https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/issue/feed Profesional de la información 2022-07-24T14:38:55+00:00 Rodrigo Sánchez Jiménez epi@profesionaldelainformacion.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Profesional de la información</em></strong> is a scholarly journal on communication, information, indicators, libraries and information technologies.</p> <div>Impact factor JCR: JIF 2021 = 3.596 (Q2)</div> <div>Scopus/<a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=6200180164&amp;tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago Journal Rank</a>: SJR 2021 = 0.831 (Q1)</div> https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87029 Using testimonial narratives to persuade people about artificial intelligence: the role of attitudinal similarity with the protagonist of the message 2022-07-24T14:38:55+00:00 Juan-José Igartua jigartua@usal.es Alejandro González-Vázquez alejandro.gonzalez.vazquez@ui1.es Carlos Arcila-Calderón carcila@usal.es <p class="p1">This study addresses the factors that increase the persuasive impact of testimonial narrative messages on artificial intelligence (AI). In particular, the effect on two variables that, to date, have not been explored in this field is analyzed: the attitudes toward AI (positive versus ambivalent) expressed by the protagonist of the narrative message (a testimonial in audiovisual format) and the role of participants’ prior beliefs about AI. An online experiment (<em>N</em> = 652) was carried out to contrast the effect of attitudinal similarity on identification with the protagonist of the narrative message and the indirect effect on attitudes and intention to use AI. The results showed that the message whose protagonist expressed positive attitudes toward AI induced greater identification only in those participants with previous positive beliefs. In contrast, the message whose protagonist expressed ambivalent attitudes toward AI induced greater identification only among participants with previous negative beliefs. In addition, identification and cognitive elaboration were found to mediate the effect of attitudinal similarity on the attitude toward and intention to use AI. These findings are discussed in the context of narrative persuasion research and the development of campaigns for improving social perceptions of data science.</p> 2022-07-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86829 Educational influence of knowledge of the masked presence of alcohol on Instagram on behavior change 2022-03-29T08:20:24+00:00 Jesús Bermejo-Berros jesus.bermejo@uva.es <p class="p1">The push strategy of anti-alcohol campaigns targeting young people, both in traditional media and on social media, has shown a limited capacity to contribute to the development of healthy behaviors. Even when young people know about the harmful effects of alcohol, they develop reactance attitudes, self-affirmation reactions, defensive responses, and neutralization of the persuasive attempts of institutional messages. It is necessary to seek new educational communication strategies that are effective in modifying behaviors favorable to alcohol consumption among young people. The aim of this research is to implement an educational method that favors this change toward healthy behaviors. On the basis of the <em>Instagram</em> campaign “Like my addiction,” 124 young people (age: <em>M </em>= 23.6 years, <em>SD </em>= 2.8 years) participated for 3 weeks in three phases to test whether the presence of alcohol on <em>Instagram</em> had an impact on their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, as well as the effectiveness of the educational method tested. Half of the subjects followed a process of becoming aware of the presence of alcohol in this <em>Instagram</em> campaign and then participated in an interactive process of discussion according to the critical–dialogical educational method. The results show that this educational method is effective. Subjects in the control group who did not follow the method did not modify their behavior on <em>Instagram</em>. In contrast, the experimental group became aware of the masked presence of alcohol on <em>Instagram</em>. These subjects exhibit self-persuasion that makes them modify their activity favorably between the pre-test and post-test phase as they change their attitudes and behaviors toward alcohol. The results show that the critical–dialogical formative method can be favorably applied to implement campaigns and educational actions to fight alcohol addiction among young people.</p> 2022-07-13T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86901 Thanks for joining our life: Intimacy as performativity on YouTube parenting vlogs 2022-04-26T16:06:10+00:00 Arantxa Vizcaíno-Verdú arantxa.vizcaino@dedu.uhu.es Patricia De-Casas-Moreno pcasas@unex.es Daniela Jaramillo-Dent daniela.jaramillo@pi.uhu.es <p class="p1"><em>YouTube</em> is currently becoming one of the main international platforms for amateur creators attempting to attract followers through a multiplicity of audiovisual content and engagement strategies based on search and algorithmic recommendation systems. In many cases, this environment, and especially its users, try to adapt to a celebrity network pattern on the basis of the construction of seemingly authentic and close relationships, leading to relevant phenomena such as parenting vlogs. This kind of content is focused on the presence of intimate moments that reflect the daily life of influencers or micro-influencers, capturing large numbers of followers, as well as important communication and information strategies. From this perspective, and through a quantitative content analysis of 1,034 videos and more than 900 viewing hours on two very popular <em>YouTube</em> family influencer channels, this study explores the degree of intimacy portrayed in their video content as performative strategies that configure the profiles’ post through interactions with followers, brands, and self-promotion. The results suggest that the degree of intimacy shown in this content becomes a performative process for these family youtubers, whereby the more intimate the exposure, the more popular the information offered to the user. In short, this type of content prioritizes the routines of the youtubers, who include their closest family members and friends as a means of attracting attention, while dedicating their time to interacting with brands (advertising) and recording, editing, and submitting a vast amount of personal and private information on the platform (dissemination) in a sort of promotional–private performativity.</p> 2022-08-03T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86882 Body and diet as sales pitches: Spanish teenagers’ perceptions about influencers’ impact on ideal physical appearance 2022-05-17T20:15:56+00:00 Beatriz Feijoo beatriz.feijoo@unir.net Adela López-Martínez adela.lopez@unir.net Patricia Núñez-Gómez pnunezgo@ccinf.ucm.es <p class="p1">This project sits at the intersection of three axes: (a) influencers as the increasing focus of minors’ attention and trust online, (b) sponsored content about eating habits and physical appearance produced by these influencers, and (c) minors’ ability to discern and identify the persuasive intent of said content. The usefulness of analyzing the interplay of these three axes lies in the impact that consumption of this content has on minors’ self-esteem and on the adoption of certain habits that can directly impact their personal well-being. For this reason, this project seeks to provide insight into the social imaginary that influencers’ sponsored speech creates in minors regarding their physical appearance. To this end, a qualitative study with 12 focus groups of minors aged 11–17 years of age who reside in Spain was proposed. Notable among the key results was that the interviewees recognize that they primarily receive commercial messages about food and products related to physical appearance, such as makeup or clothing, from influencers; likewise, they are aware of persuasive tactics used on social networks, such as the construction of a perfect, aspirational world, which minors absorb and accept as part of the digital environment and end up incorporating into their behavior on social networks. This research aims to help demonstrate that teaching critical thinking is a long-term cultural investment that would make the citizens of tomorrow aware, engaged, and active.</p> 2022-08-10T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86814 Mobile instant messaging techno-stressors: Measurement, dimensionality, and relationships with type of usage 2022-06-09T09:57:27+00:00 Alberto Ardèvol-Abreu aardevol@ull.es Carmen Rodríguez-Wangüemert crodrigu@ull.edu.es Patricia Delponti adelpont@ull.edu.es <p class="p1">Increasingly popular mobile instant messaging (MIM) apps allow users to interact anytime and anywhere with different purposes, such as coordinating work-related issues, staying in touch with people they love, or passing the time. But recent research suggests that MIM may create excessive demands on people and become a source of technostress. For example, users may experience communication overload, invasion of their face-to-face activities, pressure to respond to messages with urgency, or ambiguity regarding the intention or tone of their interactions. Building on these ideas, we develop a specific, multidimensional measure of MIM technostress and explore how it relates to different uses. To do so, we use survey data from a diverse sample of 1,259 residents in Spain. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted on different halves of the sample supported a four-dimensional, second-level construct of MIM stress. Furthermore, structural equation model results suggest that not all uses are equally associated with MIM stress. Relatedness and intimacy uses were not positively related to MIM stress or any of its dimensions. Conversely, work uses, coordination of social activity, and even passing the time were positively associated with all techno-stressors. We discuss our findings with an eye toward promoting healthy use of MIM apps.</p> 2022-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86825 Effects of narrative-persuasive frames on Twitter regarding blood donation: pride versus empathy and people versus numbers 2022-05-02T06:47:02+00:00 Patricia Durántez-Stolle patricia.durantez@uva.es Raquel Martínez-Sanz raquel.martinez.sanz@uva.es Isabel Rodríguez-de-Dios isabel.rodriguez@upf.edu <p> </p> <p class="p1">Blood donation in Spain is an altruistic, voluntary and unpaid process. Despite its social and health significance, this process has suffered a standstill in recent years that has been aggravated by the coronavirus pandemic. To promote the generation of new donors, it is necessary to carry out campaigns aimed at younger age groups to improve the information they have and reduce their fears. This research analyses the effectiveness of different frames of a persuasive narrative to increase blood donation. These frames have been constructed from two variables: an emotional appeal (empathy awakened by a recipient protagonist versus the pride experienced by a donor protagonist) and the identification of the beneficiary of the donation (identifiable victim versus generic beneficiary). The manipulated narratives incorporate features of edutainment and are adapted to the tone and language of the target population, young people, in the format of a <em>Twitter</em> thread. To test the effectiveness of these narratives, an experimental study was conducted among 600 participants aged 18–30 years. The results show the effectiveness of the emotional appeal, specifically in the threads that are led by a recipient of the blood donation. This appeal induces greater identification among people who perceive themselves as a little or somewhat similar to the protagonist. This outcome in turn positively affects information recall, the intention to share the message and the attitude towards donation, and reduces the perceived risk. All in all, it increases the donation intention. The data confirm a moderated mediation model with identification as a mediator and similarity as a moderator. On the contrary, no statistically significant effects were found regarding the second manipulated variable. No evidence was found that the use of an identifiable beneficiary in the donation appeal obtained better results than the call to donate supported by generic data.</p> <p> </p> 2022-08-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86823 Perception of the leaders of the United States, the United Kingdom, and Spain in television conferences about Covid-19 2022-06-14T08:14:34+00:00 Emma Rodero emma.rodero@upf.edu <p class="p1">The discourses of the political leaders about the Covid-19 pandemic have become central to many television networks. Many citizens follow these press conferences, as they can be affected by the government’s measures against the virus. Due to its importance, analyzing how these individuals perceive their political leaders in these television appearances is relevant to determining their influence. Therefore, this study aims to analyze the perception of the ex-President of the United States (Donald Trump), the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (Boris Johnson), and the President of the Government of Spain (Pedro Sánchez) in television conferences devoted to battling against the Covid-19 pandemic. After watching two videos of each leader, a gender-balanced sample of 360 citizens of these three countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, and Spain) evaluated the politicians’ attractiveness, credibility, and persuasiveness as well as the influence of these factors on the public’s attitude toward them and voting intention using an online survey. The results showed that the Spanish President, Pedro Sánchez, was considered the most attractive, credible, and persuasive leader with the most favorable attitude toward him and the highest voting intention, followed by the Prime Minister, Boris Johnson, and the American politician, Donald Trump. Therefore, the most physically and vocally attractive leader with the highest credibility and persuasiveness achieved the most favorable attitude and the highest voting intention. The most influential variables of the structural model analyzed in this study were persuasiveness and credibility, which mainly affected the attitude toward the politician and, to a lesser extent, voting intention.</p> 2022-07-14T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86824 Speakers’ expressions before and in a public presentation. Pleasantness, emotional valence, credibility, and comprehension effects 2022-06-14T09:00:47+00:00 Emma Rodero emma.rodero@upf.edu Olatz Larrea olatz.larrea@ub.edu Lluís Mas lluis.mas@upf.edu <p class="p1">When a speaker engages in public speaking, the expression shown while delivering the speech determines the effectiveness of the communication and can be very influential in organizational settings. However, in public speaking, the audience can often see the speaker before the presentation begins. Therefore, the public could hypothetically gain an impression on the basis of the speakers’ expressions even before performing the presentation. With this idea in mind, the goal of this research is to analyze the influence of speakers’ expressions before delivering a speech and during the presentation. The study included two brown-haired/dark-eyed male and female and two blonde-haired/blue-eyed male and female presenters to investigate the effect of appearance and gender. A total of 200 participants looked at the speakers’ pictures with five different expressions before delivering the speech. They then watched videos with the same speakers and similar expressions while delivering the speech. The results showed that happiness was the most pleasant and positive expression, followed by confidence, indifference, shyness, and anger, when the participants watched the speakers before the presentation. However, confidence was considered the most pleasant, credible, and comprehensible expression, followed by happiness, anger, shyness, and indifference, while giving the speech. In both cases, female presenters were perceived as the most pleasant, and brown-haired/dark-eyed speakers were considered the most pleasant, credible, and comprehensible. The speakers’ expressions were perceived as more intense before the speech than during the discourse. This line of research helps understand the influence of these two crucial moments in presentations, and the results may be transferred into practice for public speaking training.</p> 2022-07-15T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86890 Technology gap and other tensions in social support and legal procedures: stakeholders’ perceptions of online violence against women during the Covid-19 pandemic 2022-03-10T11:22:59+00:00 Inês Amaral ines.amaral@uc.pt Rita Basílio-Simões rbasilio@fl.uc.pt Gabriela Poleac gabriela.poleac411@gmail.com <p class="p1">As the Covid-19 pandemic intensified the digitisation of everyday lives and violent behaviours on many mainstream platforms, online violence against women raised renewed concerns. Across the literature, there has been an emphasis on survivors’ experiences and actions to cope with technology-facilitated abuse. Still, little is known about how people perceive the nature, the prevalence, and the impacts of harmful online behaviours and the appropriate social and institutional responses to tackle them. This article aims to help fill this gap. It presents a qualitative study on stakeholders’ perceptions conducted under the frame of a broader project which addresses the prevalence, nature and impact of online violence against women during the Covid-19 pandemic. Empirically, it draws on semi-structured interviews with Portuguese activists, police and law enforcement agents and different public and private service sector providers to explore perspectives on preventing, policing and coping with online violence. The findings expose several socio-technical challenges that prevent effective protection measures for victims and punitive consequences for perpetrators. They also suggest tensions in negotiating digital technology’s role in social support and legal procedures. <span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2022-08-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86742 El videojuego como herramienta de alfabetización informacional en estudiantes universitarios 2022-04-18T07:54:37+00:00 Óliver Martín-Martín omartinm@ucm.es Borja Manero bmanero@ucm.es Alejandro Romero-Hernández alerom02@ucm.es <p class="p1">Los videojuegos han resultado útiles para el aprendizaje en diferentes campos. El presente trabajo trata de evaluar la utilidad del videojuego como herramienta de aprendizaje para la alfabetización informacional de estudiantes de grado universitario. El videojuego “El último examen” nace tras el análisis de 1.639 consultas registradas en un período de dos años en la <em>Biblioteca de la Universidad Complutense</em>, y tiene como objetivo dar respuestas a demandas, que son extrapolables a otras bibliotecas universitarias. Para evaluar su utilidad se realiza un experimento piloto de grupo único con 14 estudiantes de grado. Los resultados muestran mejoras significativas en sus competencias informacionales y valoraciones positivas de la intervención. Se concluye que la incorporación de videojuegos como complemento a los contenidos de los programas formativos de las bibliotecas puede resultar provechoso, especialmente como introducción, refuerzo o evaluación de estos.</p> <p> </p> 2022-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86800 Profiling the most highly cited scholars from China: Who they are. To what extent they are interdisciplinary 2022-03-30T14:23:37+00:00 Yu Peng Zhu zhuyupeng@ynu.ac.kr Han Woo Park hanpark@ynu.ac.kr <p class="p1">Since the beginning of the 21<sup>st</sup> century, an increasing number of Chinese researchers have joined the ranks of the world’s top scientists. Some international organizations have observed this phenomenon and ranked the world’s top Chinese researchers. However, investigation of highly cited interdisciplinary research (IDR) scholars is insufficient, although IDR tends to have a greater social impact. Looking at the top 2% of the world’s Chinese scholars, this study analyzes the structural attributes of IDR by those top scholars in detail using network analysis, cluster analysis, block modeling, and quadratic assignment procedure analysis. The results show that the proportion of highly cited scholars in technical categories is higher than in social categories. The fields of artificial intelligence and image processing, oncology and carcinogenesis, plus neurology and neurosurgery serve as bridges across disciplines, with materials, energy, and artificial intelligence and image processing having higher eigenvector centrality. The field of social sciences has the widest range of IDR activities, but cooperation within this field is low. Forty-two of the world’s first-class universities are in China, and of the world’s top 2% scholars who come from China, 46.3% work for these institutions. The research themes of highly cited academics from World First-Class universities in China are most similar to the themes of scholars from universities in China with first-class academic disciplines. There are differences between non-university and university scholars in terms of research topics. It is suggested that the government can promote a triple-helix effect (public institute, industrial enterprise, and research school) so that organizations of different natures can produce synergistic effects.</p> 2022-07-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86791 Análisis de las comunicaciones en Twitter de las Fuerzas Armadas y Cuerpos de Seguridad: un modelo empírico 2022-01-19T10:50:18+00:00 José-Miguel Pina jmpina@unizar.es <p class="p1">Las redes sociales se han convertido en uno de los canales de comunicación más usados por todo tipo de organizaciones, incluyendo las de seguridad y defensa. Concretamente, este trabajo se centra en la utilización de <em>Twitter</em> por parte de las <em>Fuerzas Armadas</em> españolas y los Cuerpos de Seguridad del Estado, tratando de analizar los factores que influyen en el<em> engagement </em>de sus tweets. Para ello, se propone un modelo empírico que, sobre una muestra de 14.540 tweets, permite explicar cuál es el rol de una serie de variables que miden los diferentes atributos de tipo racional y emocional presentes en sus comunicaciones. Estas variables se identifican mediante una combinación de técnicas que incluyen el uso del lenguaje <em>Python</em> y <em>VBA</em>. Posteriormente, con <em>IBM SPSS</em> se procede a la estimación de un modelo <em>logit</em> que muestra el efecto de cada una de las variables consideradas sobre la probabilidad de que un tweet genere mayor o menor <em>engagement</em>. Los resultados muestran que los seguidores de las cuentas de carácter militar, tal como la del <em>Ejército de Tierra</em>, suelen interactuar más que los usuarios del resto de cuentas examinadas, a pesar de que tienen un menor número total de seguidores que las cuentas de los cuerpos policiales. Además, los resultados confirman la importancia tanto de utilizar estímulos racionales como emocionales para que un mensaje sea efectivo. En particular, se recomienda que la información esté sustentada en la utilización de elementos como hipervínculos, emojis, fotografías y alusiones a temas que apelen a las emociones de los individuos como, por ejemplo, el patriotismo.</p> 2022-07-11T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87030 Open data on Covid-19 in the Spanish autonomous communities: reutilization in spatial epidemiology studies 2022-06-27T09:16:27+00:00 Jose-Antonio Salvador-Oliván jaso@unizar.es Severino Escolano-Utrilla severino@unizar.es <p class="p1"><span class="s1">The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for governments and health administrations at all levels to have an open data registry that facilitates decision-making in the planning and management of health resources and provides information to citizens on the evolution of the epidemic. The concept of “open data” includes the possibility of reutilization by third parties. Space and time are basic dimensions used to structure and interpret the data of the variables that refer to the health status of the people themselves. Hence, the main objective of this study is to evaluate whether the autonomous communities’ data files regarding Covid-19 are reusable to analyze the evolution of the disease in basic spatial and temporal analysis units at the regional and national levels. To this end, open data files containing the number of diagnosed cases of Covid-19 distributed in basic health or administrative spatial units and temporal units were selected from the portals of the Spanish autonomous communities. The presence of infection-related, demographic, and temporal variables, as well as the download format and metadata, were mainly evaluated. Whether the structure of the files was homogeneous and adequate for the application of spatial analysis techniques was also analyzed. The results reveal a lack of standardization in the collection of data in both spatial and temporal units and an absence of, or ambiguity in, the meaning of the variables owing to a lack of metadata. An inadequate structure was also found in the files of seven autonomous communities, which would require subsequent processing of the data to enable their reuse and the application of analysis and spatial modeling techniques, both when carrying out global analyses and when comparing patterns of evolution between different regions.</span></p> 2022-07-30T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información