Profesional de la Información 2022-05-23T15:11:54+00:00 Rodrigo Sánchez Jiménez Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Profesional de la información</em></strong> es una revista sobre comunicación, información, indicadores, bibliotecas y tecnologías de la información.</p> <div>Factor de impacto JCR: JIF 2020 = 2,253</div> <div>Scopus/<a href=";tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago Journal Rank</a>: SJR 2020 = 0,698</div> Letter: Central nodes in the reform of the Spanish Universities Law 2022-05-23T15:11:54+00:00 Igor Ahedo-Gurrutxaga jone Martínez-Palacios Andere Ormazabal-Gaston <p class="p1">The recent presentation of the definitive draft of the <em>Organic Law of the Spanish University System</em> has been preceded by a long process of consultation and negotiation with the university community, and its starting point can be found in a qualitative study carried out by the authors of this letter. That research work aimed to uncover the positions of the different sectors involved in the universities in terms of the three nodes which had been defined by the <em>Universities Ministry</em> as strategic: finance, governance and professional advancement. This letter aims to compare these positions with the definitive articles of the Law, in addition to situating the final governance design within the European regulatory framework. It highlights the uniqueness of the Spanish model in a context of reform that is strongly influenced by the ideals of New Public Management.</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información Brussels will pay for everything. The shaping of the European public sphere before NextGenerationEU 2022-02-07T09:56:21+00:00 Rubén Rivas-de-Roca Mar García-Gordillo <p class="p1">The Covid-19 pandemic meant challenges in crisis management for democratic institutions such as the European Union (EU). To achieve an economic and social recovery to the crisis, the EU institutions have promoted the <em>NextGenerationEU</em> (<em>NGEU</em>) program, a massive recovery package for this purpose. This action takes place at a time of strong visibility of Euroscepticism within a global phenomenon of distrust in political authorities. The present work aims to know the shaping of the European Public Sphere when <em>NGEU</em> is launched. First, the evolution of EU support during the pandemic is described, analyzing the possible factors that influence on this variable. On this matter, a secondary analysis of data is applied on different waves of the <em>Eurobarometer</em> (<em>EB</em> <em>92</em>, <em>93</em>, <em>94</em> and <em>95</em>). The statistical method is also used to give items that determine the image of the EU. Moreover, the communicative dissemination of this plan is drawing upon semi-structured interviews with some of the professionals who deal with the task. The objective is to provide an overview of how the public sphere made up of citizens and institutions is defined before a moment of symbolic relevance. The results reveal a trend towards greater positivity with the EU after the pandemic. However, among other possible factors, the degree of support depends on the ideological position and, to a lesser extent, on the type of community where the citizens live. EU officials assess this rise of Europeanism as an opportunity, targeting the <em>NGEU</em> communication campaign especially at young people.</p> 2022-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información The Internet, populism, and deliberative democracy: A panel study of 167 countries from 2000 to 2018 2022-02-02T09:38:33+00:00 Jia Lu Zikun Liu Jing Jin <p class="p1">The wide adoption of the Internet gave rise to populism, which is regarded as a critical threat to deliberative democracy. This paper was a cross-national panel study to explore the Internet’s populist impacts on deliberative democracy. It had two specific objectives. One was to examine whether or to what extent Internet penetration has populist impacts on deliberative dimensions, including reasoned justification, common good, respectful counterarguments, range of consultation, and engaged society. The other was to examine how Internet penetration moderates a country’s formal deliberative process, referring to the interaction among state institutions, the public sphere, and civil society. Using data from <em>Varieties of Democracy</em> (<em>V-Dem</em>) and the <em>United Nations</em>, we run panel analyses with a sample of 3,173 units in 167 countries from 2000 to 2018. The results showed that Internet penetration increased calls for the common good, disrespected counterarguments, narrowed the range of consultation, and expanded engagement in public deliberation. In addition, Internet penetration strengthened the effects of public sphere on reasoned justification and range of consultation, but weakened the effects of civil society on reasoned justification, common good, respectful counterarguments, and range of consultation.</p> 2022-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información Third-order election. Spanish political parties’ communication on Facebook during the 2019 European Parliament election campaign 2022-02-02T09:50:05+00:00 Vicente Fenoll <p class="p1">The 2019 <em>European Parliament</em> elections were held in Spain in a context of political fragmentation and polarisation, following the recent incorporation of the extreme right into the national parliament. Elections to the <em>European Parliament</em> are considered second-order elections and are sometimes used by citizens to cast a punishment vote, favouring new political actors of a contestatary character to gain visibility. Social media networks such as <em>Facebook</em> play an important role because they offer these parties a space where they can disseminate their messages on equal terms, beyond media control. This study conducts a content analysis of the posts published on <em>Facebook</em> by Spanish national political parties in the month prior to the 2019 local, regional and European elections. The main goal is to analyse the communication strategy used by Spanish political parties in this social media, in order to find out the importance given by the parties to the European elections and whether there are differences in strategy at each level. The results reveal that the European elections are a third-order election for Spanish parties, behind local elections. Most parties practice a dual campaign, in which the topics, goals and emotions posted on <em>Facebook</em> vary according to the political level at which they are targeted. This tendency is more pronounced in populist parties and seems to be shaped by the national political context and aimed at matching the concerns of Spaniards at the European level. Despite the incorporation of the extreme right into the Spanish political chessboard, the negative Eurosceptic discourse is only present in the two populist parties and does not affect the rest of the political forces.</p> 2022-05-20T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información Twitter content curation as an antidote to hybrid warfare during Russia’s invasion of Ukraine 2022-03-20T20:21:07+00:00 Noemí Morejón-Llamas Pablo Martín-Ramallal Juan Pablo Micaletto-Belda <p class="p1">Concern regarding information disorders has been magnified by the proliferation of social networks. Since its occupation of Crimea in 2014, Russia has been spewing disinformation both inside and outside its borders, giving rise to a hybrid conflict, which since 24 February 2022 has become an invasion. Faced with this flood of malicious information on social networks, fact-checkers assume the role of content curators, relying on contextualization, verification, and literacy improvement to reduce such noise. This work studies the <em>Twitter</em> activity of three Spanish fact-checkers (<em>Newtral</em>, <em>EFE Verifica</em>, and <em>Maldito Bulo</em>), to fight this new epidemic of disinformation. The sample (<em>n</em> = 397) was subjected to content analysis to study the evolution of the verifications and their reaction capacity, the purpose of their activity, the formats in which the content is presented, and their distribution and interaction as revealed by reactions on <em>Twitter</em>. The results reveal a rapid, albeit repetitive, response of the fact-checkers to the invasion, support from them to end the internationalization of hoaxes, a reliance on denials and contextualization rather than literacy improvement, unattractive formats, and a distribution and impact that demonstrate a greater reaction to sensational and emotive content.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2022-05-25T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información Las innovaciones periodísticas más destacadas en España (2010-2020): características e impacto organizacional, industrial y social 2021-12-16T11:39:23+00:00 Miguel Carvajal Dámaso Mondéjar José M. Valero-Pastor Alicia De-Lara José A. García-Avilés Félix Arias-Robles <p class="p1">La aparición de nuevos actores y plataformas tecnológicas, los cambios en los hábitos de consumo y la transformación del ecosistema digital han acelerado el proceso de innovación periodística en la última década (2010-2020), acentuado por la pandemia por Covid-19. El periodismo atraviesa desde hace años un proceso de cambio permanente que afecta a las prácticas, los productos y los profesionales. Este estudio identifica las innovaciones periodísticas más destacadas, describe sus características y analiza su impacto en función del valor aportado en la organización, de su alcance en la industria y de su contribución a la sociedad. Se han realizado entrevistas semiestructuradas a un grupo de expertos (n=22), integrado por académicos y profesionales. Codificadas y sumadas las innovaciones (n=60) de un total de 253 menciones, se analiza el alcance de las mismas en los tres ámbitos –organización, industria y sociedad– para obtener el listado de las 20 más relevantes. Los resultados indican que la innovación surge de forma incremental en cómo se produce, organiza, distribuye y sostiene el periodismo. Algunas innovaciones han influido de manera sustancial en la organización y en la sociedad, como el modelo de socios o el <em>fact-checking</em>; sin embargo están aún lejos de ser adoptadas de modo generalizado en la industria. El periodismo de datos se ha catalogado como la innovación periodística más relevante por implicar cambios en la producción, generar un periodismo de calidad e impulsar su adopción por otros agentes del sector.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2022-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información Profile of digital slow journalism audiences in Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico 2021-12-02T15:04:35+00:00 Carmen Peñafiel-Saiz Miren Manias-Muñoz Itsaso Manias-Muñoz <p class="p1">The aim of this work is to study slow journalism audiences, with a particular interest in Latin America, specifically Argentina, Colombia, and Mexico. Five case studies were carried out, covering <em>Anfibia </em>(Argentina),<em> Arcadia </em>(Colombia),<em> Gatopardo </em>(Mexico),<em> La silla vacía </em>(Colombia), and<em> Letras libres </em>(Mexico), along with a Delphi study (double round with 27 participants) and a structured questionnaire (of 1,500 people between the ages of 18 and 65 years). The results indicate that 75% of the surveyed population obtain their information from all kinds of digital media, among whom 84% use social media for this purpose. Slow journalism is still mainly unknown to a large fraction (17%) of the population, although once given its definition and some named examples, 40% of those surveyed claimed to have read the slow press at some time. Quality is the main reason for its consumption (62%), followed by searching for specific subjects (46%), especially for young people (65%) and in Colombia (52%). Experts in slow journalism agree that the key to consolidating an audience involves listening to and interacting with its members, together with their active participation in the media.</p> 2022-05-19T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información La voz del periodismo en las redes sociales: cartografía y funciones del community manager de medios informativos como nuevo actor de la comunicación periodística 2022-01-19T10:44:41+00:00 Alberto Martín-García Álex Buitrago Ignacio Aguaded <p class="p1">El periodismo ha encontrado en las redes sociales un vehículo de comunicación con la audiencia para mantenerla diariamente informada de los contenidos que publica. Para gestionar esa relación se hace indispensable la figura del <em>community manager</em>, un profesional vinculado directamente a los estudios de Ciencias de la Información, especialmente del periodismo y de la publicidad. La metodología es de carácter cualitativo partiendo de la Teoría fundamentada. El procedimiento elegido para la recolección de datos consistió en la realización de trece entrevistas telefónicas a <em>community managers</em> de medios españoles de gran prestigio, las cuales fueron tratadas y codificadas con el paquete de análisis <em>Atlas.ti</em> en su versión 8.4.3. Las funciones de los <em>community managers</em> periodísticos son muy dispares y están en constante evolución. Predomina la percepción de que la calidad del contenido publicado en las redes sociales debe prevalecer respecto a la búsqueda de resultados en forma de clics y de interacciones, en un entorno en el que la información se consume a gran velocidad y donde es más difícil destacar respecto a la competencia. Se concluye que el periodismo digital no ha de recurrir a las redes sociales únicamente como simples intermediarias hacia las webs oficiales, debe generar una comunidad de usuarios que se interese por el medio y por la actualidad. A pesar del ruido comunicativo, las plataformas digitales se ven como beneficiosas para el medio, y como un vehículo eficaz para mantener informada a la audiencia a través de la gestión diaria del <em>community manager</em> como voz oficial del medio.</p> 2022-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información Drivers and barriers in the transition to open science: the perspective of stakeholders in the Spanish scientific community 2022-02-21T13:56:22+00:00 Aurora González-Teruel Alexandre López-Borrull Gema Santos-Hermosa Francisca Abad-García Candela Ollé Rocío Serrano-Vicente <p class="p1">This paper presents the results of a research study whose objective was to identify the facilitating factors and barriers that, in the opinion of representatives of the Spanish scientific community, impact the implementation of the new open science model in four areas: open access, open research data, research assessment and open peer review. A qualitative study was designed in which information was obtained through interviews with researchers, editors of scientific journals, representatives of assessment agencies and vice-chancellors, and through a focus group of librarians with expertise in aspects of open science. The enabling factors and barriers identified were related to the researcher and the fruit of their research, as well as to the scientific ecosystem, which provides direct institutional support and backing (universities/research centres), the regulatory framework (management of the science system) and the science communication system (media). The results indicate that a shift in scientific practices toward the open science model can only be achieved if there is a policy framework that integrates all initiatives and links into the scientific assessment and reward system, and if the necessary funding is in place to support this transition.</p> 2022-05-17T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la Información