https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/issue/feed Profesional de la información 2022-11-16T10:47:03+00:00 Rodrigo Sánchez Jiménez epi@profesionaldelainformacion.com Open Journal Systems <p><strong><em>Profesional de la información</em></strong> is a scholarly journal on communication, information, indicators, libraries and information technologies.</p> <div>Impact factor JCR: JIF 2021 = 3.596 (Q2)</div> <div>Scopus/<a href="https://www.scimagojr.com/journalsearch.php?q=6200180164&amp;tip=sid&amp;clean=0" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCImago Journal Rank</a>: SJR 2021 = 0.831 (Q1)</div> https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86987 Use and adoption of digital educommunication media by university professors during the Covid-19 pandemic: cases of the National Autonomous University of Mexico and the Autonomous University of Chihuahua 2022-06-15T16:50:27+00:00 Rubén R. Rey-Ronquillo rubenrex64@gmail.com Juan D. Machin-Mastromatteo jmachin@uach.mx <p class="p1">This article analyzes the educational use of digital educommunication media (DEM) by four groups of professors working at the faculties of <em>Philosophy and Letters</em> and of <em>Engineering</em> at the <em>Autonomous University of Chihuahua</em> (<em>UACH</em>) and at the <em>National Autonomous University of Mexico </em>(<em>UNAM</em>). Seven hypotheses and three research questions were posed, which were related to the use of DEM (specifically: images, animations, and video; presentations (<em>PowerPoint/Prezi</em>); digital texts; the Cloud; social media/instant messaging; and email), their qualities and the differences regarding their use, among the different groups studied. A two-phase mixed-methods explanatory sequential approach was employed, with a first phase of quantitative data collection and a second qualitative phase. A stratified sample of 177 professors was selected, which was distributed proportionally between the two selected faculties and universities. All professors completed a 144-item questionnaire in the first phase, and on the basis of their answers, ten professors were selected to be interviewed in the second phase, to ensure the diversity of the interviewed group in terms of sex, age, faculty, and educational level at which they teach, as well as their teaching experience and experience in the use of DEM. Among the results, we found that: a) the choice between using DEM or traditional media in class was not determined by teachers’ perception about their students’ learning with technology; b) the characteristics of each DEM determined its use, but the use of a given DEM was not related to the activities that it could enable; c) the professors exclusively teaching in graduate programs, the younger ones, those from <em>UNAM</em>, or those of Engineering did not present significant differences to their counterparts in terms of their use and assessment of DEM; and d) the qualitative data reaffirmed these trends and helped typify the challenges and opportunities of using DEM, particularly those that arose from the period of the exclusively online education model that was adopted owing to the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2022-11-05T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86806 Role of social capital in education. Results of a survey on the individual social capital of school librarians 2022-03-28T09:18:06+00:00 Maja Wojciechowska maja.wojciechowska@gmail.com <p class="p1">Schools and school libraries play a vital role in the formation of the attitudes and behaviours of young people. Adolescence is an important period of acquisition of knowledge, socialisation, development of artistic sensitivity and enculturation, which an individual will use for the rest of his or her life. The competencies and attitudes of school and school library personnel may significantly affect the development of children and youth. It seems relevant, then, to examine their social attitudes and the level of their social capital. The paper presents the results of a survey conducted among school librarians in 20 countries around the world. The survey examined the level of their individual social capital, social attitudes and civic attitudes. According to its results, school librarians have an average level of individual social capital; however, their social capital, social activity and civic engagement are among the lowest compared with the personnel of the other types of libraries.</p> 2022-11-12T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87083 Knowing how to share and to protect oneself: key factors on digital cybercritical education for children 2022-08-05T06:36:56+00:00 Francisco-Javier Lena-Acebo lenafj@unican.es Paula Renés-Arellano paula.renes@unican.es María-José Hernández-Serrano mjhs@usal.es Maria-Carmen Caldeiro-Pedreira mcarmen.caldeiro@usc.es <p class="p1">Children live together consuming, producing, and sharing digital content. These are hypermediated communication actions typical of cyberculture, and require training in critical thinking that, even when minors receive it, is not always perceived as necessary, which can put the privacy of children at risk. This study focuses on analyzing the cyber skills of primary and high school students to act critically, and examines the level of conceptual, attitudinal, and procedural competence that children perceive they have acquired to access, consume, create, and share digital content on social media. The specific objective is to understand some of the components that may be related to young people’s perception of the training they have received, as well as whether there are differences in terms of their willingness to acquire training to protect themselves when creating and consuming digital content. To this end, a 25-item questionnaire on the knowledge, attitudes, and actions of young people was designed, validated, and administered to a sample of 417 Spanish students completing primary and high school education. The results obtained indicate that, at the conceptual level, there are no differences between the educational stages, while differences were found at the attitudinal and procedural levels. The two factors identified show that, although high school students have acquired certain critical and protective attitudes, they behave more riskily in their self-presentation and posts than primary school students when accessing, creating, and sharing digital content on social media, and that the training received and the willingness to learn about how to create and share were the differentiating variables for increased protection. We conclude that there is a need for introducing education specific to the critical analysis and self-protection of Internet use at the primary education level, as well as additional training that would help to avoid risky behavior during high school.</p> 2022-11-21T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87078 Methodology for the evaluation of media literacy in children and youth. Recommendations and trends 2022-10-28T10:39:19+00:00 Patrícia Fernandes patricia_ffernandes@sapo.pt Armanda Pinto da Mota Matos armanda@fpce.uc.pt Isabel Festas ifestas@fpce.uc.pt <p class="p1">In the current communicational scenario, transformed by technological and digital advances, media literacy is considered a crucial competence for active and informed participation in society. In this context, the main objective of this study was to assess the media literacy competences of 416 students of the 4th, 6th, and 9th grades in Portugal, identifying training needs and presenting suggestions for intervention. A non-experimental quantitative methodology was used, and the participants completed a self-response questionnaire. The results indicate that the three grades studied have a transversal need regarding the use of media, the production of media content, and participation in society through the media, and also regarding the analysis, understanding, and assessment of media content. We confirm the importance of media education in the development of media literacy and present some intervention suggestions for the promotion of these competences in the school context, namely the reinforcement of some curricular content, the use of guiding documents, and the development of critical thinking. We emphasize the importance of training teachers and parents on the subject, and finally, we also emphasize the importance of deconstructing the belief that digital natives have natural competences in this regard and therefore do not need training in this area.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87084 Metaverse and education: the pioneering case of Minecraft in immersive digital learning 2022-09-28T14:18:51+00:00 Iván Sánchez-López ivan.sanchez@ua.es Rosabel Roig-Vila rosabel.roig@ua.es Amor Pérez-Rodríguez amor@uhu.es <p class="p1">The metaverse is presented as a possible new technological iteration for the Internet. The generation of virtual universes in which the physical and the digital converge raises the question of how education will be addressed in these new systems. We find, however, pioneering exercises such as <em>Minecraft: Education Edition</em>. This platform is a version based on the popular sandbox video game, which was originally created by a community of teachers. The aim of this research is to analyze and describe the idiosyncratic characteristics of <em>Minecraft</em> as an educational platform, framing it as one of the pioneering exercises in the metaverse. To this end, we have employed a methodology that combines Multimodal Discourse Analysis with Grounded Theory and the Constant Comparative Method. As conclusions, we observe how the <em>Minecraft</em> Education platform reinforces from its approach pre-existing aspects from the physical world, resizing them to adapt them to its connected digital environment. These are key elements such as the identity of the participants, their ability to act within the system, creativity through lessons as a guide to the educational objectives and the community as the backbone of the process. At the same time, it presents differential components, such as the use of avatars, the transition from textual literacy to multimodal literacy, game mechanics that boost creativity or transhuman capabilities that defy physical space-time. All in all, the platform is designed for teachers, parents and managers, to whom it offers a series of benefits. Therefore, the pedagogical action will depend on their judgment and execution, especially through the elaboration of lessons and worlds, the management of the sessions and their interaction in community environments. It is their responsibility to ensure that the educational experience is truly empowering or, on the contrary, that it ends up being governed by reproductive criteria linked to symbolic violence.</p> 2022-11-24T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87139 Information and communication technology (ICT) skills and job satisfaction of primary education teachers in the context of Covid-19. Theoretical model 2022-10-27T13:17:39+00:00 Virginia Barba-Sanchez virginia.barba@uclm.es Ricardo Gouveia-Rodrigues rgrodrigues@ubi.pt Angel Meseguer Martinez angel.meseguer@uclm.es <p class="p1">The Covid-19 pandemic has shown that educational systems must have an online component or even a substitute. However, the efforts for this necessary transition fall largely on the teaching staff, who have been forced to quickly adapt their activities to a virtual environment. In this study, a theoretical model for analyzing how teachers’ information and communications technology (ICT) skills and the integration of these technologies influence the improvement of teaching and teacher job satisfaction is introduced. The model also pays special attention to the gender gap related to the use of ICT in teaching. At the empirical level, the model is validated on a sample of 257 Spanish primary school teachers, using the partial least squares (PLS) structural equation method. The results of the analysis show that, although the teachers’ ICT skills help them improve their teaching activities, such skills do not have a direct impact on teachers’ job satisfaction. However, teachers who integrate ICTs into their teaching activities not only improve their results and lighten their workload but also enjoy higher job satisfaction, which translates into more motivated and committed teachers. In addition, teachers’ ICT skills influence job satisfaction in different ways depending on gender. Although, for female teachers, the integration of ICT increases their job satisfaction, the results show that, for male teachers, this integration should generate improvements in teaching to yield enhanced job satisfaction. As the main implication, it is recommended to invest in teachers’ ICT skills, as these lead to enhanced efficiency and motivation and enable the change toward an ICT-based teaching model.</p> 2022-11-28T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87002 Concurrences and divergences between Spanish infotainment comedy professionals and audiences 2022-07-01T18:58:58+00:00 Inmaculada-Concepción Aguilera-García inmaaguilera@uma.es <p class="p1">Infotainment comedy is the branch of infotainment that mixes current affairs content with comedy. “Infotainment” is a relatively new term, first cited by Krüger (1988); as a television trend, academics agree that it must have existed much earlier, with English-language examples such as <em>Saturday Night Live</em> (<em>NBC</em>, 1975) or <em>That was the week that was</em> (<em>BBC</em>, 1962). In Spain, the roots of infotainment lie in <em>Caiga quien caiga</em> (<em>Telecinco</em>, 1996), a precursor to satirical pseudojournalism (García-Avilés, 1999). Nowadays, there are programs that present current affairs with comedy, as in the case of <em>El intermedio</em> (<em>La Sexta</em>, 2006) or <em>Todo es mentira</em> (<em>Cuatro</em>, 2019). Owing to the continuous evolution of formats and their complex definition and classification by academics and professionals, it is worth considering whether audiences also interpret the different programs in different ways depending on their elements, given that they depend on an “intuitive understanding” (Reinemann <em>et al.</em>, 2011; Otto <em>et al.</em>, 2017) that stems from the habit of repeated consumption. This article presents the results of a reception study contrasting Spanish infotainment comedy professionals and their audiences to assess whether their impressions of these shows are similar or if, on the contrary, their hybrid nature is so changeable that they have come to interpret them in a very different way. The methodology involved ten discussion groups with a total of 87 viewers and 13 interviews with professionals from four programs: <em>El intermedio</em>,<em> Todo es mentira</em>,<em> Ese programa del que usted me habla </em>(<em>La 2</em>, 2019), and <em>La resistencia </em>(<em>Movistar+</em>, 2018). According to the statements collected, the results revealed that audiences and content creators show more points of divergence than concurrences, which means that the messages are interpreted differently from how they were intended.</p> 2022-11-03T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86881 Disinformation and hate speech toward female sports journalists 2022-07-04T09:38:36+00:00 Elena Blanco castilla@uma.es María-Jesús Fernández-Torres mariajesusfernandez@uma.es Juan Cano-Galindo juan.cano@uma.es <p class="p1">As well as democratizing access to information and strengthening active audiences, the internet also fosters the manipulation of news and the propagation of false and violent content. Although disinformation and hate speech are not new phenomena, they are now expanding out of control, with women, including journalists, among their targets. The aim of this study is to establish the characteristics and magnitude of this problem and determine how it affects Spanish female sports journalists while carrying out their professional activities in the world of sports, a field where male supremacy is evident. This study seeks to identify the most frequent situations where this problem occurs, the types of harassment observed, the profile of the perpetrators, and above all, the consequences for the professional and personal life of these female professionals. A mixed-methods approach is used to measure the extent of this problem and determine the experience and opinion of female sports journalists using an anonymous questionnaire. This qualitative approach is reinforced by in-depth interviews with female sports journalists who have been victims of hate speech. This dual approach enables the identification of paradigmatic models of a cognitive-behavioral nature, with findings that reveal disturbing figures. Indeed, 89.6% of the professionals participating in this study stated that they had been victims of hate speech and other forms of harassment, both through social networks as well as in their work environment, principally questioning their work capacity or mentioning their physical appearance. The profile of the perpetrators was revealed, as well as the perception that this type of aggression is a common practice that can lead to self-censorship. This situation requires that urgent measures be implemented to address this problem, such as the addition of media literacy and gender training to the educational curriculum.</p> 2022-11-25T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86947 Influence of government communication on risk perception. An analysis based on the context of the sixth wave of Covid-19 in Madrid 2022-07-19T11:19:34+00:00 Ismael Crespo-Martínez icrespo@um.es Alberto Mora-Rodríguez alberto.mora@um.es José-Miguel Rojo-Martínez josemiguel.rojo@um.es <p class="p1">Risk theorists have frequently discussed the discursive construction of risk perception. In particular, the effect of media consumption on increasing the subjective perception of risk has been highlighted. Not much is known about how government communication affects citizens’ impressions and attitudes in this area, something that this research seeks to address. During the sixth wave of Covid-19, triggered by the emergence of the Omicron variant, government discourse shifted from initial concern to what has become known as the “influenzaisation” paradigm, an attempt to normalise the disease. Based on the results of a survey carried out in January 2022 amongst 664 citizens of the Community of Madrid, we sought to demonstrate, using binary logistic regression (BLR) models, to what extent the degree to which the citizens of Madrid internalised the government’s thesis of “influenzaisation” was related to a lower perception of risk. Similarly, the aim is to show whether agreement with the “influenzaisation” thesis also favoured positions that were less inclined to restrictions, so that government communication succeeded in reducing the social demand for measures. Finally, the study evaluates the predictive character of ideology on levels of risk perception and attitudes towards restrictive measures. The findings indicate that acceptance of the “influenzaisation” story led to a lower perception of risk and, as a consequence, reduced support for restrictive measures among those most exposed to this thesis. The discursive articulation of risk in government communication becomes a central element of crisis management and the strategic formulation of “risk de-escalation” or “post-risk” messages.</p> 2022-11-08T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87040 Culture of information and information exchange in a public hospital: a study based on the information orientation model and social network analysis 2022-08-05T07:39:12+00:00 Gerardo Fortea-Cabo forteagerardo@gmail.com Aurora Gonzalez-Teruel agonzal@uv.es <p class="p1">The structures of hospitals have evolved to make them centre on patients and their pathologies, with care procedures that are both interprofessional and interorganisational. This has given rise to work environments made up of teams obliged to collaborate in their problem-solving, with an essential focus on proper collaborative information behaviour (CIB). The aim was to study this behaviour in a clinical service of a hospital in relation to two aspects: information culture (IC) and the exchange of information. This entailed designing a two-part descriptive study. The first step was to administer a survey based on the information orientation model to know more about the service’s IC. The second phase focussed on the exchange of information from the perspective of an analysis of social networks. The main characteristic of IC was its proactive nature, especially in the use of information to improve one’s own work (mean = 4.58) and to respond to changes and new developments relating to work (mean = 4.18). The factor that least characterised IC was control, particularly in relation to knowledge of the objective of the activity itself (mean = 2.67) and the dispersion of information about hospital processes (mean = 2.64). On social networks, factors contrary to an interprofessional CIB were identified, such as homophily and low reciprocity in terms of relationships. In practice, the results identified a need to reinforce the perception of information as a resource, the proper use of which benefits job performance at both an individual and group level. A need to reinforce flows of internal hospital-related information was likewise evident. From a theoretical and methodological point of view, a useful tool is made available for diagnosing the collaborative information behaviour of an organisation and designing strategies to improve it.</p> 2022-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86858 Twitter interaction between audiences and influencers. Sentiment, polarity, and communicative behaviour analysis methodology 2022-06-03T08:15:14+00:00 Beatriz Catalina-García beatriz.catalina@urjc.es Rebeca Suárez-Álvarez rebeca.suarez@urjc.es <p class="p1"><em>Twitter</em> is one of several social networks with the highest numbers of users in Spain. In spite of this, how are communicative relationships developed in the digital environment among influencers who have emerged on the Internet? These personalities have a stronger influence on children and young people than traditional celebrities. The aim of this work is to study the communicative interaction generated on the profiles of Spanish influencers with the most followers on <em>Twitter</em>, based on the number of content items generated and the responses they receive from users. The polarity and sentiment conveyed by these communications have also been analysed. By processing publications in real time using machine learning based on sentiment analysis, 48,878 tweets and retweets from five influencers were studied over a period of 40 days. The results show that the publications reached nearly 200 million followers, and despite being fourth in terms of the number of followers, @IbaiLlanos is the influencer who leads the conversations on <em>Twitter</em> with the highest number of tweets, retweets, and audience share. Among the most popular topics, sporting events stand out. This study has also confirmed that the most frequently stated emotion is surprise, and that positive messages prevail over those that are negative and neutral with regard to polarity. Nevertheless, the linear regression data has verified that the main trend is toward publishing negative messages, with a lower statistical correlation, which is a behaviour that might possibly be duplicated on other social networks.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86995 Influencers with physical disabilities on Instagram: Features, visibility and business collaboration 2022-07-05T08:40:11+00:00 Mónica Bonilla-del-Río monica.bonilla@dfilo.uhu.es Juan C. Figuereo-Benítez figuereo@us.es Victoria García-Prieto vgarcia8@us.es <p class="p1">In the digital world, social media have become important for people with disabilities in terms of communication and visibility. They have also become the ideal place for activism, as they allow the self-representation of disability by the content creators themselves. This social group, traditionally segregated and discriminated against, has seen in these platforms a tool to promote social inclusion and confront the dominant discourse. This paper explores the social media <em>Instagram</em> as a space for communication and visibility of instagrammers with disabilities from Europe and Latin America. The main objective of the research is to analyse the publications of Spanish-speaking influencers with physical disabilities to establish if there are similar characteristics or if there are significant differences in the uses they make of <em>Instagram</em>’s functions and how disability is represented in their profiles. Through quantitative, descriptive, and statistical research, a content analysis was carried out of 400 publications corresponding to 10 <em>Instagram</em> profiles, all of them of microinfluencers and macroinfluencers with physical disabilities who had different types of business collaborations. The results show that disability is visible in 85% of the publications, whether in the photos or videos shared, in the text of the post, hashtags or emoticons, although it predominates to a greater extent in audiovisual content. In advertising, mentions or tags of brands stand out, much more than paid collaboration, which appears as a minority compared to other forms of promotion. The degree of influence is decisive for interactions in the form of likes and views per video or reels. Finally, the use of hashtags on inclusion and social awareness reinforces the importance of these platforms for the social integration of people with disabilities.</p> 2022-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87041 Elections and fact-checking in Portugal: the case of the 2019 and 2022 legislative elections 2022-09-05T15:48:30+00:00 João-Pedro Baptista joao.pedro.baptista@ubi.pt Pedro Jerónimo joao.pedro.baptista@ubi.pt Valeriano Piñeiro-Naval vale.naval@usual.es Anabela Gradim anabela.gradim@labcom.ubi.pt <p class="p1">Fact-checking is a relatively recent journalistic genre in Portugal that has been growing in recent years, alternately viewed as a journalism reform movement or criticized as inefficient and idealistic. Our study is a comparative analysis of the output of the Portuguese fact-checkers <em>Observador</em> and <em>Polígrafo</em> in the 2019–2022 elections to determine whether their coverage is politically biased. Performing a quantitative content analysis of all fact-checking articles on national politics (<em>n</em> = 265) published during the campaign for the parliamentary elections, our results show that fact-checking activity has increased in the last elections. These data may indicate that fact-checking agencies have increased their capacity and resources, but may also suggest a greater presence of subjectivity and deception in Portuguese political discourse. The focus of Portuguese fact-checkers is statements produced during political debates (70%), while social media verification is disregarded. Our most significant finding is the lack of evidence of partisan or political bias in the selection of the assessed statements. Both fact-checkers do not show a tendency to check statements that are more or less anti- or pro-government and/or statements that are ideologically favorable to the left wing or the right wing. Therefore, our findings confirm the high level of professionalism and impartiality of Portuguese fact-checkers evidenced in other studies, and demonstrate that the Portuguese citizen’s skepticism toward the practice has no foundation.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87110 Integrated research model for web interfaces: toward a taxonomy of quantitative and qualitative analysis for digital native media 2022-09-22T09:34:32+00:00 Santiago Tejedor santiago.tejedor@uab.cat Luis M. Romero-Rodríguez luis.romero@urjc.es Lluís Codina lluis.codina@upf.edu <p class="p1">In a context marked by the emergence of new platforms and interfaces, digital native media face the challenge of organizing and presenting their content in an effective and eloquent way. This milestone requires ongoing work toward the identification and conceptualization of the dimensions that map the structural and formal requirements necessary for fluid communication with audiences and adequate visibility in the digital ecosystem. This study, which adopts a quantitative–qualitative methodological design, proposes, describes, and applies a taxonomy for the analysis of digital media web interfaces. Based on a review of the literature, two rounds of expert judgment, and a pilot test, the research identifies 14 thematic dimensions, 36 indicators, and 69 variables. The study focuses on the importance of renewing research about taxonomy related to structural dimensions that address narrative, quality, usability, information search, and content redissemination and socialization, among other aspects. The study of web interfaces applied to journalism demands long-term research work with a holistic approach that, at a conceptual and practical level, can offer proposals for analysis and diagnosis on the basis of an integrated method.<span class="Apple-converted-space"> </span></p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86904 Effects of advertising on problem gambling: Neural-cue reactivity as a possible underlying mechanism 2022-05-30T10:32:48+00:00 Javier García-Castro jagcastro@villanueva.edu Ana Cancela acancela@villanueva.edu Miguel Ángel Martín-Cárdaba mmartincar@villanueva.edu <p class="p1">Problem gambling has recently been reclassified as a non-substance-associated behavioral addiction. To the associated vital impact (family, social, labor, and economic), we must add its increasing incidence in recent years, which has led to prioritizing the problem from the point of view of public health. Although the effects of advertising on gambling behavior have been explored since the second half of the twentieth century, there is a lack of research regarding its underlying mechanisms. Thus, the objective of this review is to present an update on the effects of advertisements on gambling attitudes and behavioral intentions, as well as to present the neurobiological correlates of gambling-related cues as a possible hypothesis for this effect. Advertisements in various formats may act both as a precipitating factor and as a maintenance factor for the gambling disorder, changing both attitudes and beliefs about gambling. Activation of brain areas related to reward, such as accumbens nucleus, to memory, such as hippocampus or amygdala, and to executive functions could be the underlying mechanism of this effect. Also, ads promoting responsible gambling do not appear to be effective in reducing behavior or encouraging self-control, but the available evidence is scarce. Therefore, the number of studies on this topic needs to increase. In addition, the available evidence questions the effectiveness of responsible gambling policies to promote self-control in this population, as well as to reduce the negative impact of this disorder, so future research on neural-cue reactivity to gambling-related stimuli may serve to improve the design of advertising strategies that increase the impact of these messages.</p> 2022-11-23T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86980 Digital footprints of Kashmiri Pandit migration on Twitter 2022-06-15T15:53:57+00:00 Farzana Gulzar farzanashahrukh@uok.edu.in Sumeer Gul sumeersuheel@gmail.com Midhat Mehraj sheikhmidhat654@gmail.com Shohar Bano banozaidi7@gmail.com Mike Thelwall m.thelwall@wlv.ac.uk <p class="p1">The paper investigates changing levels of online concern about the Kashmiri Pandit migration of the 1990s on <em>Twitter</em>. Although decades old, this movement of people is an ongoing issue in India, with no current resolution. Analysing changing reactions to it on social media may shed light on trends in public attitudes to the event. Tweets were downloaded from <em>Twitter</em> using the academic version of its application programming interface (API) with the aid of the free social media analytics software <em>Mozdeh</em>. A set of 1000 tweets was selected for content analysis with a random number generator in <em>Mozdeh</em>. The results show that the number of tweets about the issue has increased over time, mainly from India, and predominantly driven by the release of films like <em>Shikara</em> and <em>The Kashmir Files</em>. The tweets show apparent universal sup-port for the Pandits but often express strong emotions or criticize the actions of politicians, showing that the migration is an ongoing source of anguish and frustration that needs resolution. The results also show that social media analysis can give insights even into primarily offline political issues that predate the popularity of the web, and can easily incorporate international perspectives necessary to understand complex migration issues.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87158 How to reform research evaluation in Spain. Institutional accreditation as a response to the European Agreement on research assessment. Letter 2022-11-01T16:01:59+00:00 Ismael Ràfols i.rafols@cwts.leidenuniv.nl Jordi Molas-Gallart jormoga@ingenio.upv.es <p class="p1">The reform of evaluation proposed at European level in the recent <em>Agreement on Reforming Research Assessment</em> represents a window of opportunity to reform the Spanish evaluation system, at a moment when the new <em>Organic Law of the University System</em> (<em>LOSU</em>) is being debated. This agreement establishes the primacy of peer review based on qualitative criteria in order to be able to recognize the diversity of contributions and research careers, and advocates to stop the inappropriate use of journal-based metrics. How can evaluation in Spain, heavily based on these metrics, be reformed to align with these principles? In this letter we propose that it is not possible to move towards the principles of the European agreement without making structural changes in the governance of evaluation, with a return of autonomy to the universities. We advocate that individual evaluations by agencies outside the university should be limited, and that, instead, institutional evaluation should be encouraged. We collect a proposal for ‘institutional accreditation’ as a public control mechanism for the hiring and promotion of professors at the university.<span class="Apple-converted-space">&nbsp;</span></p> 2022-11-01T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/87183 Universities and knowledge transfer in the communication field. Letter 2022-11-16T10:47:03+00:00 Aingeru Genaut-Arratibel aingeru.genaut@ehu.eus Juan-Carlos Suárez-Villegas jcsuarez@us.es María-José Cantalapiedra mariajose.cantalapiedra@ehu.eus <p class="p1">“What is the role of universities nowadays?” is one of the questions that those of us who work there should be asking ourselves. Knowledge transfer has emerged as academia’s third mission and must drive social change and development. Specifically, this paper aims to analyze knowledge transfer’s significance in the social sciences and, more specifically, in communication sciences, by looking at the call for the six-year academic research period on knowledge transfer in 2018 and taking into account what is happening in other disciplines. The contributions of the Spanish university community in terms of knowledge transfer fall behind other countries in our field. Only approximately 1% of international patents result from Spanish research. This disparity between these two realms demonstrates the need to promote knowledge transfer as the third helix of the triple helix of an interactive and dynamic university model in communication with institutions and social agents.</p> 2022-11-16T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información https://revista.profesionaldelainformacion.com/index.php/EPI/article/view/86988 Paradigm changes and new challenges for media education: Review and science mapping (2000-2021) 2022-05-09T08:39:39+00:00 Ignacio Aguaded aguaded@uhu.es Sabina Civila sabi.civila@dedu.uhu.es Arantxa Vizcaíno-Verdú arantxa.vizcaino@dedu.uhu.es <p class="p1">Information, communication, and digitalization technologies have driven the unlimited access to knowledge, thereby promoting creativity, economic and cultural development, and the emergence of a global world at breakneck speed over recent decades. Across its multiple dynamics, this digital revolution has opened new educational opportunities that are closely connected to emerging technologies and, recently, to artificial intelligence. These advances have had an unexpected impact on people’s lives, altering the values of society and our understanding of the role of education and the modern school in this scenario of global communication. In this context, media education arises from the clear influence of electronic devices and digital technology on society. The aim of this study is to review our understanding of the scientific relevance of the terms “media education” and “educommunication” during the last two decades to describe its evolution on the basis of its terms, locations, thematic stages, and methodological approaches using a systematic quantitative–qualitative review of 598 articles collected from the <em>Web of Science</em> between 2000 and 2021. The results suggest that such scientific interest can be divided into two stages, viz. reflections on media education in its terminological diversity (2000–2012) and measurement, implementation, training, and educommunicative digitization in terms of technological–digital development (2013–2021). We conclude that studies in this transdisciplinary field, which have historically been spread across North and South America, Europe, North Africa, and the North/South East Asia–Pacific region, have broadened their perspective from early criticism of media education to consider the “glocalization” of media education, directing interest toward the cultural digitization of the Global South, algorithmic literacy, and the digital and ethical–critical (self-)management of individual and collective identity.</p> 2022-11-07T00:00:00+00:00 Derechos de autor 2022 Profesional de la información