Interest, media use, and participation in the 2019 Spanish election campaign



Palabras clave:

Political campaigns, Electoral campaigns, Political debates, Media, Use of media, Informational interest, News monitoring, Citizen participation, Political participation


This work analyzes the relationships between interest in the campaign for the 2019 Spanish general elections, the type of media used to follow it, and participation through conversations, disseminating electronic messages about the elections, and voting. A secondary data analysis of surveys published by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research (CIS) is carried out. The existence of relationships between the variables is determined by using the chi-squared hypothesis test, while the strength of the associations is measured by means of the Cramér’s V and the contingency coefficient. Trends are examined by analyzing the conditioned relative frequencies. The results show a strong association between interest in the campaign and the type of medium chosen to obtain information. Likewise, there is a remarkable relationship between the interest of voters and their participation in conversations, especially in family environments, and in the dissemination of digital information about the elections. In contrast, the candidates’ arguments and pledges are not significantly related to the reason for voting. Similarly, demographic variables are weakly related with interest in the campaign, following it on the media, and participation by voting, with educational level being the only characteristic exhibiting moderately strong associations. 

Biografía del autor/a

Ana Castillo-Díaz, Universidad de Málaga

Ana Castillo Díaz is a Full Professor at the University of Málaga, and was a lecturer and researcher at the University of Extremadura from 2004 to 2015.  At the University of Málaga, she teaches in the Bachelor's Degree in Advertising & Public Relations and the Master's degree in Strategic Management & Innovation in Communication.  Her main lines of research are linked to strategic business and institutional communication.  In that field, she has numerous national and international publications.


Ackerman, Bruce; Fishkin, James S. (2004). “Deliberation day”. In: Fishkin, James S.; Laslett, Peter (eds.). Debating deliberative democracy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, pp. 7-30. ISBN: 978 1 405100427

Anscombe, Frank J. (1973). “Graphs in statistical analysis”. American statistician, v. 27, n. 1, pp. 17-21.

Ardèvol-Abreu, Alberto; Barnidge, Mathew; Gil de Zúñiga, Homero (2017). “Communicative antecedents of political persuasion: political discussion, citizen news creation and the moderating role of strength of partisanship”. Mass communication and society, v. 20, n. 2, pp. 169-191.

Baumgartner, Frank R.; Chaqués-Bonafont, Laura (2015). “All news is bad news: newspaper coverage of political parties in Spain”. Political communication, v. 32, n. 2, pp. 268-291.

Benoit, William L. (2017). “Meta-analysis of research on the functional theory of political campaign discourse”. Speaker & gavel, v. 54, n. 1, pp. 7-50.

Benoit, Willilam L.; Benoit-Bryan, Jennifer M. (2013). “Debates come to the United Kingdom: a functional analysis of the 2010 British prime minister election debates”. Communication quarterly, v. 61, n. 4, pp. 463-478.

Boulianne, Shelley (2011). “Stimulating or reinforcing political interest: using panel data to examine reciprocal effects between news media and political interest”. Political communication, v. 28, n. 2, pp. 147-162.

Boulianne, Shelley (2018). “Twenty years of digital media effects on civic and political participation”. Communication research, v. 47, n. 7, pp. 947-966.

Casero-Ripollés, Andreu; Feenstra, Ramón A.; Tormey, Simon (2016). “Old and new media logics in an electoral campaign: the case of Podemos and the two-way street mediatization of politics”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 21, n. 3, pp. 378-397.

Cho, Jaeho; Shah, Dhavan V.; McLeod, Jack M.; McLeod, Douglas M.; Scholl, Rosanne M.; Gotlieb, Melisa R. (2009). “Campaigns, reflection and deliberation: advancing an O-S-R-O-R model of communication effects”. Communication theory, v. 19, n. 1, pp. 66-88.

CIS (2020). Barómetro de diciembre 2019. Postelectoral elecciones generales 2019. Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas.

Copeland, Lauren; Feezell, Jessica T. (2017). “The influence of citizenship norms and media use on different modes of political participation in the US”. Political studies, v. 65, n. 4, pp. 805-823.

Cramér, Harald (1946). Mathematical methods of statistics. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN: 978 0 691005478

Drew, Dan; Weaver, David (2006). “Voter learning in the 2004 presidential election: did the media matter?”. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, v. 83, n. 1, pp. 25-42.

Druckman, James N.; Parkin, Michael (2005). “The impact of media bias: how editorial slant affects voters”. Journal of politics, v. 67, n. 4, pp. 1030-1049.

Fontela-Pedreira, Julia; Rúas-Araújo, José; Puentes-Rivera, Iván (2020). “El debate electoral de las elecciones generales del 10N de 2019 en las redes sociales de RTVE”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 6, e290603.

Fraile, Marta (2011). “Widening or reducing the knowledge gap? Testing the media effects on political knowledge in Spain (2004-2006)”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 16, n. 2, pp. 163-184.

Gerth; Matthias A.; Siegert, Gabriele (2012). “Patterns of consistence and constriction: how news media frame the coverage of direct democratic campaigns”. American behavioral scientist, v. 56, n. 3, pp. 279-299.

Gil de Zúñiga, Homero; Ardèvol-Abreu, Alberto; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2019). “WhatsApp political discussion, conventional participation and activism: exploring direct, indirect and generational effects”. Information, communication & society, v. 24, n. 2, pp. 201-218.

Gingrich, Paul (1992). Introductory statistics for the social sciences. Department of sociology and social sciences, University of Regina.

González-Neira, Ana; Berrocal-Gonzalo, Salomé; Zamora-Martínez, Patricia (2020). “Fórmulas de emisión y consumo de los debates televisivos en España en las elecciones legislativas de 2019”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 2, e290221.

González-Oñate, Cristina; Jiménez-Marín, Gloria; Sanz-Marcos, Paloma (2020). “Consumo televisivo y nivel de interacción y participación social en redes sociales: análisis de las audiencias millennials en la campaña electoral de España”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 5, e290501.

Gottfried, Jeffrey A.; Hardy, Bruce W.; Holbert, R. Lance; Winneg, Kenneth M.; Jamieson, Katheleen-Hall (2017). “The changing nature of political debate consumption: social media, multitasking and knowledge acquisition”. Political communication, v. 34, n. 2, pp. 172-199.

Grabe, Maria-Elizabeth; Kamhawi, Rasha; Yegiyan, Narine (2009). “Informing citizens: how people with different levels of education process television, newspaper and web news”. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, v. 53, n. 1, pp. 90-111.

Hansen, Kasper M.; Pedersen, Rasmus-Tue (2014). “Campaigns matter: how voters become knowledgeable and efficacious during election campaigns”. Political communication, v. 31, n. 2, pp. 303-324.

Hopmann, David N.; Wonneberger, Anke; Shehata, Adam; Höijer, Jonas (2016). “Selective media exposure and increasing knowledge gaps in Swiss referendum campaigns”. International journal of public opinion research, v. 28, n. 1, pp. 73-95.

Humanes, María-Luisa (2014). “Exposición selectiva y partidismo de las audiencias en España. El consumo de información política durante las campañas electorales de 2008 y 2011”. Palabra clave, v. 17, n. 3, pp. 773-802.

IAB Spain (2021). Estudio de redes sociales 2021.

Jamieson, Kathleen-Hall; Adasiewicz, Christopher (2000). “What can voters learn from election debates?”. In: Coleman, Stephen (ed.). Televised election debates: International perspectives. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 25-42. ISBN: 978 0 230 37960 2

Kaufhold, Kelly; Valenzuela, Sebastián; Gil de Zúñiga, Homero (2010). “Citizen journalism and democracy: how user generated new use relates to political knowledge and participation”. Journalism and mass media communication quarterly, v. 87, n. 3/4, pp. 515-529.

Lago-Vázquez, Diana; Direito-Rebollal, Sabela; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ana-Isabel; López-García, Xosé (2016). “El consumo millennial de información política en televisión y redes sociales. Análisis de la campaña elecciones generales en España 2015”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 71, pp. 1151-1169.

Lazarsfeld, Paul F.; Berelson, Bernard; Gaudet, Hazel (1948). The people’s choice. How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. New York Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press. ISBN: 978 0 231896146

López-García, Guillermo; Llorca-Abad, Germán; Valera-Ordaz, Lidia; Peris-Blanes, Alvar (2018). “Los debates electorales, ¿el último reducto frente la mediatización? Un estudio de caso de las elecciones generales españolas de 2015”. Palabra clave, v. 21, n. 3, pp. 772-797.

Madianou, Mirca; Miller, Daniel (2013). “Polymedia: towards a new theory of digital media in interpersonal communication”. International journal of cultural studies, v. 16, n. 2, pp. 169-187.

Moeller, Judith; De-Vreese, Claes; Esser, Frank; Kunz, Ruth (2014). “Pathway to political participation: the influence of online and offline news media on internal efficacy and turnout of first-time voters”. American behavioral scientist, v. 58, n. 5, pp. 689-700.

Mondak, Jeffery J. (2010). Personality and the foundations of political behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978 0 521140959

Müller, Stefan (2020). “Media coverage of campaign promises throughout the electoral cycle”. Political communication, v. 37, n. 5, pp. 696-718.

Norris, Pippa (2000). A virtuous circle. Political communications in postindustrial societies. Cambridge: Cambridge university press. ISBN: 978 0 511609343

Oser, Jennifer; Hooghe, Marc; Marien, Sophie (2013). “Is online participation distinct from offline participation? A latent class analysis of participation types and their stratification”. Political research quarterly, v. 66, n. 1, pp. 91-101.

Pont-Sorribes, Carles; Besalú, Reinald; Codina, Lluís (2020). “WhatsApp como canal de información política en España: credibilidad, perfil de usuarios y compartición de contenidos”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 6, e290619.

Schoenback, Klaus; Lauf, Edmund (2002). “The ‘trap’ effect of television and its competitors”. Communication research, v. 29, n. 5, pp. 564-583.

Soroka, Stuart N. (2012). “The gatekeeping function: Distributions of information in media and the real world”. The journal of politics, v. 74, n. 2, pp. 514-528.

Soroka, Stuart N.; Wlezien, Christopher (2019). “Tracking the coverage of public policy in mass media”. Policy studies journal, v. 47, n. 2, pp. 471-491.

Strömbäck, Jesper (2008). “Four phases of mediatization: an analysis of the mediatization of politics”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 228-246.

Strömbäck, Jesper; Dimitrova, Daniela V. (2011). “Mediatization and media interventionism: A comparative analysis of Sweden and the United States”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 16, n. 1, pp. 30-49.

Strömbäck, Jesper; Djerf-Pierre, Monika; Shehata, Adam (2016). “A question of time? A longitudinal analysis of the relationship between news media consumption and political trust”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 21, n. 1, pp. 88-110.

Strömbäck, Jesper; Shehata, Adam (2010). “Media malaise or a virtuous circle? Exploring the causal relationships between news media exposure, political news attention and political interest”. European journal of political research, v. 49, n. 5, pp. 575-597.

Strömbäck, Jesper; Shehata, Adam (2019). “The reciprocal effects between political interest and TV news revisited: Evidence from four panel surveys”. Journalism and mass communication quarterly, v. 96, n. 2, pp. 473-496.

Van-Aelst, Peter; Strömbäck, Jesper; Aalberg, Toril; Esser, Frank; De-Vreese, Claes; Matthes, Jörg; Hopmann, David; Salgado, Susana; Hubé, Nicolas; Stępińska, Agnieszka; Papathanassopoulos, Stylianos; Berganza, Rosa; Legnante, Guido; Reinemann, Carsten; Sheafer, Tamir; Stanyer, James (2017). “Political communication in a high-choice media environment: A challenge for democracy?”. Annals of the international communication association, v. 41, n. 1, pp. 3-27.

Verba, Sidney; Schlozman, Kay-Lehman; Brady, Henry E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978 0 674942936

Vinson, C. Danielle; Moore, William V. (2007). “The campaign disconnect: media coverage of the 2000 South Carolina presidential primary”. Political communication, v. 24, n. 4, pp. 393-413.

Walgrave, Steefan; Soroka, Stuart N.; Nuytemans, Michiel (2008). “The mass media’s political agenda setting power: A longitudinal analysis of media, parliament, and government in Belgium (1993 to 2000)”. Comparative political studies, v. 41, n. 6, pp. 814-836.

Weeks, Brian E.; Lane, Daniel S.; Kim, Dam-Hee; Lee, Slgi S.; Kwak, Nojin (2017). “Incidental exposure, selective exposure, and political information sharing: Integrating online exposure patterns and expression on social media”. Journal of computer-mediated communication, v. 22, n. 6, pp. 363-379.



Cómo citar

Castillo-Díaz, A., & Castillo-Esparcia, A. (2021). Interest, media use, and participation in the 2019 Spanish election campaign. Profesional De La información, 30(6).



Análisis / Analysis


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.


Cargando métricas ...