When polarization hits corporations: the moderating effect of political ideology on corporate activism

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.nov.02

Palabras clave:

Corporate activism, Social polarization, Political ideology, Brand equity, Corporate reputation, Authenticity, Credibility, Socially responsible consumption

Resumen

Traditionally, it has been argued that companies should maintain a neutral stance on issues of a social or political nature, especially controversial ones. However, in recent years, corporations have begun to adopt clear positions on sensitive and polarizing social and political issues. This new phenomenon, called corporate activism, is beginning to gain prominence in corporate strategies, which now extend beyond business objectives and sometimes may go against the beliefs held by many customers. To date, studies aimed at identifying whether these types of actions benefit or harm companies are scarce, and none of them have focused on consumer perceptions. Adopting the latter approach, this work identifies the antecedents and effects of corporate activism, and the influence that political ideology can have as a variable moderating these effects. Analysis of a sample of 1,521 individuals representative of the Spanish population using a structural equation model yielded the following results: (i) institutional and corporate credibility and authenticity act as antecedents of corporate activism, (ii) when credibility in institutions diminishes, consumers perceive that corporations should be more involved in social and political affairs, even when controversial or polarizing, (iii) reputation and brand equity are considered effects of corporate activism, and (iv) political ideology acts as a variable moderating these effects, in such a way that individuals with a more conservative ideology do not appreciate that companies that get involved in activist initiatives will enjoy positive consequences on their reputation and brand equity, while individuals with more liberal views do perceive such positive effects. These findings help companies to guide their strategic decisions, especially those related to corporate social responsibility (CSR), as well as help governments and institutions to understand the social changes that are taking place and understand the role that consumers expect corporations to play today.

Biografía del autor/a

Carlota López-Aza, Universidad Complutense de Madrid

 

 

Citas

Aaker, David A. (1991). Managing brand equity. San Francisco: The Free Press. ISBN: 0 02 900101 3

Aaker, David A. (1996). “Measuring brand equity across products and markets”. California management review, v. 38, n. 3, pp. 102-120.

Abito, José-Miguel; Besanko, David; Diermeier, Daniel (2019). Corporate reputation and social activism: Strategic interaction, firm behavior, and social welfare. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978 0 199386154 https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199386154.001.0001

Agarwal, James; Osiyevskyy, Oleksiy; Feldman, Percy M. (2015). “Corporate reputation measurement: Alternative factor structures, nomological validity, and organizational outcomes”. Journal of business ethics, v. 130, n. 2, pp. 485-506. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2232-6

Aguilera-Caracuel, Javier; Guerrero-Villegas, Jaime (2018). “How corporate social responsibility helps MNEs to improve their reputation. The moderating effects of geographical diversification and operating in developing regions”. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, v. 25, n. 4, pp. 355-372. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1465

Aqueveque, Claudio; Encina, Catherine (2010). “Corporate behavior, social cynicism, and their effect on individuals’ perceptions of the company”. Journal of business ethics, v. 91, pp. 311-324. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0621-z

Akbar, Moustapha (2016). Reconceptualizing brand authenticity and validating its scale. Doctoral dissertation. Lethbridge, Alta: University of Lethbridge, Faculty of Management.

Alhouti, Sarah; Johnson, Catherine M.; Holloway, Betsy-Bugg (2016). “Corporate social responsibility authenticity: Investigating its antecedents and outcomes”. Journal of business research, v. 69, n. 3, pp. 1242-1249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2015.09.007

Arora, Raj (2007). “Message framing strategies for new and mature products”. Journal of product & brand management, v. 16, n. 6, pp. 377-385. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420710823744

Austin, Lucinda; Gaither, Barbara; Gaither, T. Kenn (2019). “Corporate social advocacy as public interest communications: Exploring perceptions of corporate involvement in controversial social-political issues”. Journal of public interest communications, v. 3, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.32473/jpic.v3.i2.p3

Bartikowski, Boris; Walsh, Gianfranco; Beatty, Sharon E. (2011). “Culture and age as moderators in the corporate reputation and loyalty relationship”. Journal of business research, v. 64, n. 9, pp. 966-972. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2010.11.019

Beverland, Michael B. (2006). “The ‘real thing’: Branding authenticity in the luxury wine trade”. Journal of business research, v. 59, n. 2, pp. 251-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2005.04.007

Bhattacharya, Subhajit (2017). “Does corporate social responsibility contribute to strengthen brand equity? An empirical study”. International review on public and nonprofit marketing, v. 14, pp. 513-533. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12208-017-0185-z

Bigné-Alcañiz, Enrique; Chumpitaz-Cáceres, Rubén; Currás-Pérez, Rafael (2010). “Alliances between brands and social causes: The influence of company credibility on social responsibility image”. Journal of business ethics, v. 96, pp. 169-186. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0461-x

Bigné-Alcañiz, Enrique; Currás-Pérez, Rafael; Sánchez-García, Isabel (2009). “Brand credibility in cause-related marketing: The moderating role of consumer values”. Journal of product & brand management, v. 18, n. 6, pp. 437-447. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420910989758

Borden, Jonathan (2019). Consumer attachment and corporate social advocacy: Leveraging political behaviors to bolster organization-public relationships. Doctoral dissertation. Siracuse University. https://surface.syr.edu/etd/1111

Brammer, Stephen J.; Pavelin, Stephen (2006). “Corporate reputation and social performance: The importance of fit”. Journal of management studies, v. 43, n. 3, pp. 435-455. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00597.x

Carney, Dana R.; Jost, John T.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Potter, Jeff (2008). “The secret lives of liberals and conservatives: Personality profiles, interaction styles, and the things they leave behind”. Political psychology, v. 29, n. 6, pp. 807-840. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00668.x

Chan, Eugene Y.; Palmeira, Mauricio (2021). “Political ideology moderates consumer response to brand crisis apologies for data breaches”. Computers in human behavior, v. 121, 106801. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.106801

Chang, Kabrina K. (2017). “Starbucks for president: The disappearing line between Government and business as agents for social change”. Empresa y humanismo, v. 20, n. 1, pp. 35-64. https://doi.org/10.15581/015.XX.1.35-64

CIS (2021). Barómetro de marzo 2021. Avance de resultados. Estudio n. 3313. Madrid: Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas. http://www.cis.es/cis/opencms/ES/NoticiasNovedades/InfoCIS/2021/Documentacion_3313.html

Corcoran, Michael; Newman, Kenneth; Devasagayam, P. Raj (2016). “Consumer perception of corporate activism: strategic implication for marketing”. International journal of academic research in business and social sciences, v. 6, n. 10, pp. 52-61. https://doi.org/10.6007/IJARBSS/v6-i10/2331

De-la-Fuente-Sabaté, Juan-Manuel; De-Quevedo-Puente, Esther (2003). “Empirical analysis of the relationship between corporate reputation and financial performance: a survey of the literature”. Corporate reputation review, v. 6, n. 2, pp. 161-177. https://doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.crr.1540197

Den-Hond, Frank; Rehbein, Kathleen A.; De-Bakker, Frank G. A.; Kooijmans-Van-Lankveld, Hilda (2014). “Playing on two chessboards: Reputation effects between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate political activity (CPA)”. Journal of management studies, v. 51, n. 5, pp. 790-813. https://doi.org/10.1111/joms.12063

Dodd, Melissa D.; Supa, Dustin W. (2014). “Conceptualizing and measuring ‘corporate social advocacy’ communication: Examining the impact on corporate financial performance”. Public relations journal, v. 8, n. 3, pp. 2-23. https://www.bellisario.psu.edu/assets/uploads/2014DODDSUPA.pdf

Dodd, Melissa D.; Supa, Dustin W. (2015). “Testing the viability of corporate social advocacy as a predictor of purchase intention”. Communication research reports, v. 32, n. 4, pp. 287-293. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2015.1089853

Dowling, Grahame R. (2016). “Defining and measuring corporate reputations”. European management review, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 207-223. https://doi.org/10.1111/emre.12081

Du, Shuili; Bhattacharya, C. B.; Sen, Sankar (2010). “Maximizing business returns to corporate social responsibility (CSR): The role of CSR communication”. International journal of management reviews, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 8-19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2370.2009.00276.x

Eberl, Markus; Schwaiger, Manfred (2005). “Corporate reputation: disentangling the effects on financial performance”. European journal of marketing, v. 39, n. 7/8, pp. 838-854. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560510601798

Edelman (2019). Edelman trust barometer special report: In brands we trust? Chicago: Edgecliffe. https://www.edelman.com/research/trust-barometer-special-report-in-brands-we-trust

Eilert, Meike; Nappier-Cherup, Abigail (2020). “The activist company: Examining a company’s pursuit of societal change through corporate activism using an institutional theoretical lens”. Journal of public policy and marketing, v. 39, n. 4, pp. 461-476. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743915620947408

Erdem, Tülin; Swait, Joffre (2004). “Brand credibility, brand consideration and choice”. Journal of consumer research, v. 31, n. 1, pp. 191-198. https://doi.org/10.1086/383434

Ewing, Douglas R.; Allen, Chris T.; Ewing, Randall L. (2012). “Authenticity as meaning validation: an empirical investigation of iconic and indexical cues in a context of ‘green’ products”. Journal of consumer behaviour, v. 11, n. 5, pp. 381-390. https://doi.org/10.1002/cb.1382

Fatma, Mobin; Rahman, Zillur; Khan, Imran (2015). “Building company reputation and brand equity through CSR: The mediating role of trust”. International journal of bank marketing, v. 33, n. 6, pp. 840-856. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-11-2014-0166

Fernandes, Daniel; Mandel, Naomi (2014). “Political conservatism and variety-seeking”. Journal of consumer psychology, v. 24, n. 1, p. 79-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2013.05.003

Fombrun, Charles J. (1996). Reputation: realizing value from the corporate image. Harvard Business School Press. ISBN: 978 0 875846330

Fombrun, Charles J.; Rindova, Violina (1996). Who’s tops and who decides? The social construction of corporate reputations. Working paper. New York University, Stern School of Business, pp. 5-13.

Fombrun, Charles J.; Shanley, Mark (1990). “What’s in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy”. Academy of management journal, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 233-258. https://doi.org/10.5465/256324

Fombrun, Charles J.; Van-Riel, Cees B. M. (2004). Fame & fortune: how successful companies build winning reputations. New York: Prentice Hall. ISBN: 978 0 130937377

Fritz, Kristine; Schoenmüeller, Verena; Bruhn, Manfred (2017). “Authenticity in branding - Exploring antecedents and consequences of brand authenticity”. European journal of marketing, v. 51, n. 2, pp. 324-348. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-10-2014-0633

Gatzert, Nadine (2015). “The impact of corporate reputation and reputation damaging events on financial performance: empirical evidence from the literature”. European management journal, v. 33, n. 6, pp. 485-499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2015.10.001

Godfrey, Paul C. (2005). “The relationship between corporate philanthropy and shareholder wealth: a risk management perspective”. Academy of management review, v. 30, pp. 777-798. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2005.18378878

Goldsmith, Ronald E.; Lafferty, Barbara A.; Newell, Stephen J. (2000). “The impact of corporate credibility and celebrity credibility on consumer reaction to advertisements and brands”. Journal of advertising, v. 29, n. 3, pp. 43-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2000.10673616

Graham, Jesse; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A. (2009). “Liberals and conservatives rely on different sets of moral foundations”. Journal of personality and social psychology, v. 96, n. 5, pp. 1029-1046. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015141

Grayson, Kent; Martinec, Radan (2004). “Consumer perceptions of iconicity and indexicality and their influence on assessments of authentic market offerings”. Journal of consumer research, v. 31, n. 2, pp. 296-312. https://doi.org/10.1086/422109

Hair, Joseph F.; Black, Will C.; Babin, Barry J.; Anderson, Rolph E.; Tatham, Ronald L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis, 6th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. ISBN: 978 0 138132637

Hennig-Thurau, Thornsten; Groth, Markus; Paul, Michael; Gremler, Dwayne D. (2006). “Are all smiles created equal? How emotional contagion and emotional labor affect service relationships”. Journal of marketing, v. 70, n. 3, pp. 58-73. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.3.058

Hoffmann, Christian P.; Bronn, Peggy S.; Fieseler, Christian (2016). “A good reputation: Protection against shareholder activism”. Corporate reputation review, v. 19, n. 1, pp. 35-46. https://doi.org/10.1057/crr.2015.27

Holt, Douglas B. (2002). “Why do brands cause trouble? A dialectical theory of consumer culture and branding”. Journal of consumer research, v. 29, n. 1, pp. 70-90. https://doi.org/10.1086/339922

Hoppner, Jessica J.; Vadakkepatt, Gautam G. (2019). “Examining moral authority in the marketplace: a conceptualization and framework”. Journal of business research, v. 95, pp. 417-427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.07.045

Hovland, Carl I.; Janis, Irving L.; Kelley, Harold H. (1953). Communication and persuasion: psychological studies of opinion change. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN: 978 0 300005738

Hydock, Chris; Paharia, Neeru; Weber, Thomas J. (2019). “The consumer response to corporate political advocacy: a review and future directions”. Customer needs and solutions, v. 6, n. 3, pp. 76-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40547-019-00098-x

Iyengar, Shanto; Westwood, Sean J. (2015). “Fear and loathing across party lines: New evidence on group polarization”. American journal of political science, v. 59, n. 3, pp. 690-707. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajps.12152

Joo, Soyoung; Miller, Elisabeth G.; Fink, Janet S. (2019). “Consumer evaluations of CSR authenticity: Development and validation of a multidimensional CSR authenticity scale”. Journal of business research, v. 98, pp. 236-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.01.060

Jørgensen, Poul E. F.; Isaksson, Maria (2015). “The compassionate organization: contesting the rhetoric of goodwill in public sector value statements”. International journal of public sector management, v. 28, n. 1, pp. 72-83. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPSM-09-2013-0132

Jost, John T. (2006). “The end of the end of ideology”. American psychologist, v. 61, n. 7, pp. 651-670. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.61.7.651

Jost, John T.; Glaser, Jack; Kruglanski, Arle W.; Sulloway, Frank J. (2003). “Political conservatism as motivated social cognition”. Psychological bulletin, v. 129, n. 3, pp. 339-375. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.3.339

Jost, John T.; Hunyady, Orsolya (2003). “The psychology of system justification and the palliative function of ideology”. European review of social psychology, v. 13, n. 1, pp. 111-153. https://doi.org/10.1080/10463280240000046

Jost, John T.; Langer, Melanie; Singh, Vishal (2017). “The politics of buying, boycotting, complaining, and disputing: An extension of the research program by Jung, Garbarino, Briley, and Wynhausen”. Journal of consumer research, v. 44, n. 3, pp. 503-510. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucx084

Jung, Kiju; Garbarino, Ellen; Briley, Donnel A.; Wynhausen, Jesse (2017). “Blue and red voices: effects of political ideology on consumers’ complaining and disputing behavior”. Journal of consumer research, v. 44, n. 3, pp. 477-499. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucx037

Keller, Kevin L. (1998). Strategic brand management: building, measuring and managing brand equity. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN: 978 0 131201156

Keller, Kevin L.; Lehmann, Donald R. (2006). “Brands and branding: research findings and future priorities”. Marketing science, v. 25, n. 6, pp. 740-759. https://doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1050.0153

Kim, Sora; Lee, Yoon (2012). “The complex attribution process of CSR motives”. Public relations review, v. 38, n. 1, pp. 168-170. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2011.09.024

Kim, Jeehye C.; Park, Brian; Dubois, David (2018). “How consumers’ political ideology and status-maintenance goals interact to shape their desire for luxury goods”. Journal of marketing, v. 82, n. 6, pp. 132-149. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022242918799699

King, Brayden G. (2008). “A political mediation model of corporate response to social movement activism”. Administrative science quarterly, v. 53, n. 3, pp. 395-421. https://doi.org/10.2189/asqu.53.3.395

Korschun, Daniel; Martin, Kelly D.; Vadakkepatt, Gautham (2020). “Marketing’s role in understanding political activity”. Journal of public policy & marketing, v. 39, n. 4, pp. 378-387. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743915620949261

Korschun, Daniel; Rafieian, Hoori; Aggarwal, Anubhav; Swain, Scott D. (2019). “Taking a stand: consumer responses when companies get (or don’t get) political”. SSRN, 2806476. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2806476

Lafferty, Barbara A. (2007). “The relevance of fit in a cause-brand alliance when consumers evaluate corporate credibility”. Journal of business research, v. 60, n. 5, pp. 447-453. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JBUSRES.2006.09.030

Lafferty, Barbara A.; Goldsmith, Ronald E. (1999). “Corporate credibility’s role in consumers’ attitudes and purchase intentions when a high versus a low credibility endorser is used in the ad”. Journal of business research, v. 44, n. 2, pp. 109-116. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(98)00002-2

Lai, Chi-Shiun; Chih, Chiu-Jen; Yang, Chin-Fang; Pai, Da-Chang (2010). “The effects of corporate social responsibility on brand performance: The mediating effect of industrial brand equity and corporate reputation”. Journal of business ethics, v. 95, n. 3, pp. 457-469. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-010-0433-1

Lee, Sun-Youg; Zhang, Weiwu; Abitbol, Alan (2019). “What makes CSR communication lead to CSR participation? Testing the mediating effects of CSR associations, CSR credibility, and organization-public relationships”. Journal of business ethics, v. 157, n. 2, pp. 413-429. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3609-0

Lin, Tom C. W. (2018). “Incorporating social activism”. Boston University law review, v. 98, pp. 1535-1605. https://www.bu.edu/bulawreview/files/2019/01/LIN.pdf

Mahrinasari, M. S. (2019). “Determinants of brand equity: communication of corporate social responsibility (CSR) versus CSR itself and company credibility”. Contemporary economics, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 317-334. http://www.ce.vizja.pl/en/issues/volume/13/issue/3#art580

Manfredi-Sánchez, Juan-Luis (2019). “Activismo político de los presidentes de empresa del IBEX 35 ante los retos políticos, sociales y medioambientales”. El profesional de la información, v. 28, n. 5, e280505. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.sep.05

Martín-de-Castro, Gregorio; Navas-López, José-Emilio; López-Sáez, Pedro (2006). “Business and social reputation: exploring the concept and main dimensions of corporate reputation”. Journal of business ethics, v. 63, n. 4, pp. 361-370. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-005-3244-z

Masip, Pere; Suau, Jaume; Ruiz-Caballero, Carlos (2020). “Percepciones sobre medios de comunicación y desinformación: ideología y polarización en el sistema mediático español”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 5, e290527. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.sep.27

Matten, Dirk; Crane, Andrew (2005). “Corporate citizenship: Toward an extended theoretical conceptualization”. Academy of management review, v. 30, n. 1, pp. 166-179. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.2005.15281448

McCroskey, James C.; Teven, Jason J. (1999). “Goodwill: A reexamination of the construct and its measurement”. Communication monographs, v. 66, n. 1, pp. 90-103. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637759909376464

McDonnell, Mary-Hunter; King, Brayden (2013). “Keeping up appearances: Reputational threat and impression management after social movement boycotts”. Administrative science quarterly, v. 58, n. 3, pp. 387-419. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001839213500032

McShane, Lindsay; Cunningham, Peggy (2012). “To thine own self be true? Employees’ judgments of the authenticity of their organization’s corporate social responsibility program”. Journal of business ethics, v. 108, n. 1, pp. 81-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-011-1064-x

Mohr, Lois A.; Webb, Deborah J.; Harris, Katherine E. (2001). “Do consumers expect companies to be socially responsible? The impact of corporate social responsibility on buying behavior”. Journal of consumer affairs, v. 35, n. 1, pp. 45-72. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-6606.2001.tb00102.x

Monfort, Abel; Villagra, Nuria; López-Vázquez, Belén (2019). “Exploring stakeholders’ dialogue and corporate social responsibility (CSR) on Twitter”. El profesional de la información, v. 28, n. 5, e280513. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.sep.13

Moorman, Christine (2020). “Commentary: Brand activism in a political world”. Journal of public policy & marketing, v. 39, n. 4, pp. 388-392. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743915620945260

Moulard, Julie G.; Raggio, Randle D.; Folse, Judith A. G. (2016). “Brand authenticity: Testing the antecedents and outcomes of brand management’s passion for its products”. Psychology & marketing, v. 33, n. 6, pp. 421-436. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20888

Mukherjee, Sourjo; Althuizen, Niek (2020). “Brand activism: Does courting controversy help or hurt a brand?”. International journal of research in marketing, v. 37, n. 4, pp. 772-788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2020.02.008

Nalick, Michael; Josefy, Matthew; Zardkoohi, Asghar; Bierman, Leonard (2016). “Corporate sociopolitical involvement: a reflection of whose preferences?”. Academy of management perspectives, v. 30, n. 4, pp. 384-403. https://doi.org/10.5465/amp.2015.0033

Newell, Stephen J.; Goldsmith, Ronald E. (2001). “The development of a scale to measure perceived corporate credibility”. Journal of business research, v. 52, n. 3, pp. 235-247. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00104-6

Odriozola, María D.; Baraibar‐Díez, Elisa (2017). “Is corporate reputation associated with quality of CSR reporting? Evidence from Spain”. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, v. 24, n. 2, pp. 121-132. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1399

Ordabayeva, Nailya; Fernandes, Daniel (2018). “Better or different? How political ideology shapes preferences for differentiation in the social hierarchy”. Journal of consumer research, v. 45, n. 2, pp. 227-250. https://doi.org/10.1093/jcr/ucy004

Paek, Hye-Jin; Nelson, Michelle R. (2009). “To buy or not to buy: Determinants of socially responsible consumer behavior and consumer reactions to cause-related and boycotting ads”. Journal of current issues & research in advertising, v. 31, n. 2, pp. 75-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/10641734.2009.10505267

Pappu, Ravi; Quester, Pascale G.; Cooksey, Ray W. (2005). “Consumer‐based brand equity: improving the measurement-empirical evidence”. Journal of product & brand management, v. 14, n. 3, pp. 143-154. https://doi.org/10.1108/10610420510601012

Parcha, Joshua M.; Kingsley-Westerman, Catherine Y. (2020). “How corporate social advocacy affects attitude change toward controversial social issues”. Management communication quarterly, v. 34, n. 3, pp. 350-383. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318920912196

Park, Jongchul; Lee, Hanjoon; Kim, Chankon (2014). “Corporate social responsibilities, consumer trust and corporate reputation: South Korean consumers’ perspectives”. Journal of business research, v. 67, n. 3, pp. 295-302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2013.05.016

Pérez-Morote, Rosario; Pontones-Rosa, Carolina; Núñez-Chicharro, Montserrat (2020). “The effects of e-government evaluation, trust and the digital divide in the levels of e-government use in European countries”. Technological forecasting and social change, v. 154, 119973. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2020.119973

Pérez-Ruiz, Andrea; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Ignacio (2015). “How customer novelty seeking influences customer CSR perceptions”. Marketing intelligence & planning, v. 33, n. 4, pp. 486-507. https://doi.org/10.1108/MIP-07-2014-0140

Pintado-Blanco, Teresa; Sánchez-Herrera, Joaquín; López-Aza, Carlota (2020). “Activismo corporativo: ¿moda o estrategia de comunicación de marca?”. Harvard Deusto. Márketing y ventas, n. 162, pp. 6-13. https://www.harvard-deusto.com/activismo-corporativo-moda-o-estrategia-de-comunicacion-de-marca

Ponzi, Leonard J.; Fombrun, Charles J.; Gardberg, Naomi A. (2011). “RepTrak™ pulse: Conceptualizing and validating a short-form measure of corporate reputation”. Corporate reputation review, v. 14, n. 1, pp. 15-35. https://doi.org/10.1057/crr.2011.5

Pressgrove, Geah; Kim, Carolyn (2018). “Stewardship, credibility and political communications: A content analysis of the 2016 election”. Public relations review, v. 44, n. 2, pp. 247-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2018.01.003

Reiljan, Andrés (2020). “Fear and loathing across party lines’ (also) in Europe: affective polarisation in European party systems”. European journal of political research, v. 59, n. 2, pp. 376-396. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.12351

Rim, Hyejoon; Dong, Chuqing (2018). “Trust and distrust in society and public perception of CSR: a cross-cultural study”. Social responsibility journal, v. 14, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1108/SRJ-01-2017-0016

Rim, Hyejoon; Lee, YoungAh; Yoo, Sanglim (2020). “Polarized public opinion responding to corporate social advocacy: social network analysis of boycotters and advocators”. Public relations review, v. 46, n. 2, 101869. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.101869

Roberts, Peter W.; Dowling, Grahame R. (2002). “Corporate reputation and sustained superior financial performance”. Strategic management journal, v. 23, n. 12, pp. 1077-1093. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.274

Rothenhoefer, Lisa M. (2019). “The impact of CSR on corporate reputation perceptions of the public. A configurational multi‐time, multi‐source perspective”. Business ethics: A European review, v. 28, n. 2, pp. 141-155. https://doi.org/10.1111/beer.12207

Saeidi, Sayedeh-Parastoo; Sofian, Saudah; Saeidi, Parvaneh; Saeidi, Sayyedeh-Parisa; Saaeidi, Seyyed-Alireza (2015). “How does corporate social responsibility contribute to firm financial performance? The mediating role of competitive advantage, reputation, and customer satisfaction”. Journal of business research, v. 68, n. 2, pp. 341-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2014.06.024

Sarkar, Christian; Kotler, Philip (2018). “Brand activism. From purpose to action”. Houston: Idea Bite Press. ISBN: 978 0 9905767 9 2

Scherer, Andreas G.; Palazzo, Guido; Matten, Dirk (2014). “The business firm as a political actor: A new theory of the firm for a globalized world”. Business & society, v. 53, pp. 143-156. https://doi.org/10.1177/0007650313511778

Sen, Sankar; Bhattacharya, C. B. (2001). “Does doing good always lead to doing better? Consumer reactions to corporate social responsibility”. Journal of marketing research, v. 38, n. 2, pp. 225-243. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.38.2.225.18838

Sobande, Francesca (2019). “Woke-washing: ‘intersectional’ femvertising and branding ‘woke’ bravery”. European journal of marketing, v. 54, n. 11, pp. 2723-2745. https://doi.org/10.1108/EJM-02-2019-0134

Stanley, Vincent (2020). “Commentary: Patagonia and the business of activism”. Journal of public policy & marketing, v. 39, n. 4, pp. 393-395. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743915620948864

Stephan, Ute; Patterson, Malcom; Kelly, Ciara; Mair, Johanna (2016). “Organizations driving positive social change: A review and an integrative framework of change processes”. Journal of management, v. 42, n. 5, pp. 1250-1281. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206316633268

Torres, Anna; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Tribó, Josep A.; Verhoef, Peter (2012). “Generating global brand equity through corporate social responsibility to key stakeholders”. International journal of research in marketing, v. 29, n. 1, pp. 13-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijresmar.2011.10.002

Turban, Daniel B.; Cable, Daniel M. (2003). “Firm reputation and applicant pool characteristics”. Journal of organizational behavior, v. 24, n. 6, pp. 733-751. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.215

Ulver, Sofia; Laurell, Christofer (2020). “Political ideology in consumer resistance: Analyzing far-right opposition to multicultural marketing”. Journal of public policy & marketing, v. 39, n. 4, pp. 477-493. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743915620947083

Valera-Ordaz, Lidia; Doménech-Beltrán, Jaume (2020). “Perfil sociodemográfico y actitudes políticas de los grupos a favor y en contra de limitar la libre circulación de información durante la pandemia”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 6, e290616. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.nov.16

Van-Beurden, Pieter; Gössling, Tobias (2008). “The worth of values. A literature review on the relation between corporate social and financial performance”. Journal of business ethics, v. 82, n. 2, 407. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-008-9894-x

Vredenburg, Jessica; Kapitan, Sommer; Spry, Amanda; Kemper, Joya A. (2020). “Brands taking a stand: Authentic brand activism or woke washing?”. Journal of public policy & marketing, v. 39, n. 4, pp. 444-460. https://doi.org/10.1177/0743915620947359

Vredenburg, Jessica; Spry, Amanda; Kemper, Joya A.; Kapitan, Sommer (2018). “Woke washing: What happens when marketing communications don’t match corporate practice”. The conversation, December 5. https://theconversation.com/woke-washing-what-happens-when-marketing-communications-dont-match-corporate-practice-108035

Waddock, Sandra A.; Graves, Samuel B. (1997). “The corporate social performance-financial performance link”. Strategic management journal, v. 18, n. 4, pp. 303-319. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199704)18:4%3C303::AID-SMJ869%3E3.0.CO;2-G

Wettstein, Florian; Baur, Dorothea (2016). “Why should we care about marriage equality?: political advocacy as a part of corporate responsibility”. Journal of business ethics, v. 138, n. 2, pp. 199-213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-015-2631-3

Wilcox, Dennis L. (2019). “Dialogic communication theory in the age of corporate activism: a postmodern perspective”. Communication and media in Asia Pacific, v. 2, n. 1. https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/CMAP/article/view/163778

Yoo, Boonghee; Donthu, Naveen (2001). “Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale”. Journal of business research, v. 52, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(99)00098-3

Yoo, Boonghee; Donthu, Naveen; Lee, Sungho (2000). “An examination of selected marketing mix elements and brand equity”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, v. 28, n. 2, pp. 195-211. https://doi.org/10.1177/0092070300282002

Zasuwa, Grzegorz (2019). “Do consumers really care about organisational motives behind CSR? The moderating role of trust in the company”. Social responsibility journal, v. 15, n. 8, pp. 977-991. https://doi.org/10.1108/SRJ-08-2017-0140

Descargas

Publicado

2021-10-28

Cómo citar

Villagra, N., Clemente-Mediavilla, J., López-Aza, C., & Sánchez-Herrera, J. (2021). When polarization hits corporations: the moderating effect of political ideology on corporate activism. Profesional De La Información, 30(6). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.nov.02

Número

Sección

Artículos de investigación / Research articles

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.