Reduction of prejudice toward unaccompanied foreign minors through audiovisual narratives. Effects of the similarity and of the narrative voice

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.03

Palabras clave:

Narrative persuasion, Audience-character similarity, Narrative voice, prejudice reduction, Immigration, Mediation analysis, Testimonial messages, Identification with the protagonist, Transportation, Counterarguing, Reactance

Resumen

This study focuses on the reduction of prejudice toward foreign unaccompanied minors (UAMs) by means of audiovisual testimonial messages. Specifically, it analyzes the role of two narrative elements that can influence, in an indirect way, the intention to share the message, the feelings toward UAMs, the intention to approach UAMs, and the intention to collaborate with an NGO that provides support to immigrants. With this goal in mind, an experimental study (N = 500) was conducted using a 2 × 2 factorial design, where the factors analyzed were similarity in terms of social identity (high vs. low) and narrative voice (first-person vs. third-person). No interaction effects of similarity and narrative voice on identification or transportation were observed. However, multiple serial mediation analyses were statistically significant. A significant indirect effect of similarity on dependent variables was observed through perceived similarity (primary mediator), identification and transportation (secondary mediators), and counterarguing and reactance (tertiary mediators). Similarly, the narrative voice also had a significant indirect effect on the dependent variables that was explained by the increase in identification and transportation, and by the reduction in counterarguing and reactance. This work improves the understanding of the mechanisms that explain the impact of narratives and demonstrates that certain narrative elements can increase the effectiveness of audiovisual testimonial messages designed for the prevention of racism and xenophobia.

Citas

Allport, Gordon-Willard (1954). The nature of prejudice. Reading: Addison-Wesley. ISBN: 978 0 201001754

Appel, Markus; Gnambs, Timo; Richter, Tobias; Green, Melanie C. (2015). “The transportation scale-short form (TS-SF)”. Media psychology, v. 18, n. 2, pp. 243-266. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2014.987400

Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn (2012). “Role of transportation in the persuasion process: cognitive and affective responses to antidrug narratives”. Journal of health communication, v. 17, n. 5, pp. 564-581. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2011.635779

Barbour, Joshua B.; Doshi, Marissa J.; Hernández, Leandra H. (2016). “Telling global public health stories: narrative message design for issues management”. Communication research, v. 43, n. 6, pp. 810-843. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650215579224

Basil, Michael D. (1996). “Standpoint: The use of student samples in communication research”. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, v. 40, n. 3, pp. 431-440. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838159609364364

Bilandzic, Helena; Busselle, Rick (2013). “Narrative persuasion”. In: Dillard, James Price; Shen, Lijiang (Eds.). The SAGE handbook of persuasion: Developments in theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, pp. 200-219. ISBN: 978 1 4129 8313 6

Braddock, Kurt; Dillard, James-Price (2016). “Meta-analytic evidence for the persuasive effect of narratives on beliefs, attitudes, intentions, and behaviors”. Communication monographs, v. 83, n. 4, pp. 446-467. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2015.1128555

Braverman, Julia (2008). “Testimonials versus informational persuasive messages: the moderating effect of delivery mode and personal involvement”. Communication research, v. 35, n. 5, pp. 666-694. https://doi.org/10.1177/0093650208321785

Brehm, Jack-Williams (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York: Academic Press. ISBN: 978 0 121298500

Cameron, Lindsey; Rutland, Adam; Brown, Rupert; Douch, Rebecca (2006). “Changing children’s intergroup attitudes toward refugees: testing different models of extended contact”. Child development, v. 77, n. 5, pp. 1208-1219. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00929.x

Cao, Xiaoxia (2013). “The effects of facial close-ups and viewers’ sex on empathy and intentions to help people in need”. Mass communication and society, v. 16, n. 2, pp. 161-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2012.683928

Cea-D’Ancona, María-Ángeles; Valles-Martínez, Miguel (2014). Evolución del racismo, la xenofobia y otras formas conexas de intolerancia en España (Informe-encuesta 2014). Madrid: Subdirección General de Información Administrativa y Publicaciones. ISBN: 978 84 8417 486 8

Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (2017). Actitudes hacia la inmigración (Estudio nº 1519). http://www.cis.es/cis/opencm/ES/1_encuestas/estudios/ver.jsp?estudio=14367

Chaume, Frederic (2004). Cine y traducción. Madrid: Ediciones Cátedra. ISBN: 978 84 376 2136 4

Chen, Meng; Bell, Robert A.; Taylor, Laramie D. (2016). “Narrator point of view and persuasion in health narratives: The role of protagonist–reader similarity, identification, and self-referencing”. Journal of health communication, v. 21, n. 8, pp. 908-918. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2016.1177147

Chen, Meng; Bell, Robert A.; Taylor, Laramie D. (2017). “Persuasive effects of point of view, protagonist competence, and similarity in a health narrative about type 2 diabetes”. Journal of health communication, v. 22, n. 8, pp. 702-712. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2017.1341568

Chen, Meng; McGlone, Matthew S.; Bell, Robert A. (2015). “Persuasive effects of linguistic agency assignments and point of view in narrative health messages about colon cancer”. Journal of health communication, v. 20, n. 8, pp. 977-988. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2015.1018625

Christy, Katheryn R. (2018). “I, you, or he: Examining the impact of point of view on narrative persuasion”. Media psychology, v. 21, n. 4, pp. 700-718. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2017.1400443

Chung, Adrienne H.; Slater, Michael D. (2013). “Reducing stigma and out-group distinctions through perspective-taking in narratives”. Journal of communication, v. 63, n. 5, pp. 894-911. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12050

Cohen, Jonathan (2001). “Defining identification: a theoretical look at the identification of audiences with media characters”. Mass communication & society, v. 4, n. 3, pp. 245-264. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327825MCS0403_01

Cohen, Jonathan; Hershman-Shitrit, Michal (2017). “Mediated relationships with TV characters: the effects of perceived and actual similarity in personality traits”. Scientific study of literature, v. 7, n. 1, pp. 109-128. https://doi.org/10.1075/ssol.7.1.05coh

Cohen, Jonathan; Weimann-Saks, Dana; Mazor-Tregerman, Maya (2018). “Does character similarity increase identification and persuasion?”. Media psychology, v. 21, n. 3, pp. 506-528. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213269.2017.1302344

Dahlstrom, Michael F.; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gao, Lijing; Zhu, Xiaowen (2017). “Operational and conceptual trends in narrative persuasion research: comparing health- and non-health-related contexts”. International journal of communication, v. 11, pp. 4865-4885. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/6629/2202

De-Graaf, Anneke; Sanders, José; Hoeken, Hans (2016). “Characteristics of narrative interventions and health effects: a review of the content, form, and context of narratives in health-related narrative persuasion research”. Review of communication research, v. 4, pp. 88-131. https://doi.org/10.12840/issn.2255-4165.2016.04.01.011

EU Commission; EU Parliament (2011). Directive 2011/95/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council on standards for the qualification of third-country nationals or stateless as persons as beneficiaries of international protection, for a uniform status for refugees or for persons eligible fort subsidiary protection, and for the content of the protection granted. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2011:337:0009:0026:en:PDF

Faul, Fraz; Erdfelder, Edgar; Lang, Albert-Georg; Buchner, Axel (2007). “G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences”. Behavior research methods, v. 39, n. 2, pp. 175-191. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03193146

Fuentes-Sánchez, Raquel (2014). “Menores extranjeros no acompañados (MENA)”. Revista internacional de trabajo social y bienestar, n. 3, pp. 105-111. https://revistas.um.es/azarbe/article/view/198431

Gómez-Quintero, Juan-David; Aguerri, Jesús C.; Gimeno-Monterde, Chabier (2021). “Representaciones mediáticas de los menores que migran solos: Los MENA en la prensa española”. Comunicar, v. 29, n. 66, pp. 95-105. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-08

Gracia, Mabel (2010). “Alimentación y cultura en España: una aproximación desde la antropología social”. Physis: Revista de saúde coletiva, v. 20, n. 2, pp. 357-386. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-73312010000200003

Green, Melanie C.; Brock, Timothy C. (2000). “The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives”. Journal of personality and social psychology, v. 79, n. 5, pp. 701-721. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.79.5.701

Green, Melanie C.; Brock, Timothy C. (2002). “In the mind’s eye: transportation-imagery model of narrative persuasion”. In: Green, Melanie C.; Strange, Jeffrey J.; Brock, Timothy C. (eds.). Narrative impact. Social and cognitive foundations. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 315-341. ISBN: 0 8058 3124 X

Hayes, Andrew F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: a regression-based approach. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN: 978 1 462534654

Hoeken, Hans; Kolthoff, Matthijs; Sanders, José (2016). “Story perspective and character similarity as drivers of identification and narrative persuasion”. Human communication research, v. 42, n. 2, pp. 292-311. https://doi.org/10.1111/hcre.12076

Igartua, Juan-José (2020). “Claves metodológicas de la investigación experimental en Comunicación. Aplicaciones prácticas en persuasión narrativa”. In: Carrillo-Durán, María Victoria; Pérez-Pulido, Margarita (coords.). Metodologías y experiencias de investigación en comunicación e información. Tenerife: Sociedad Latina de Comunicación Social, pp. 65-95. ISBN: 978 84 17314 17 0

Igartua, Juan-José; Barrios, Isabel (2012). “Changing real-world beliefs with controversial movies: processes and mechanisms of narrative persuasion”. Journal of communication, v. 62, n. 3, pp. 514-531. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01640.x

Igartua, Juan-José; Frutos, Francisco-Javier (2017). “Enhancing attitudes toward stigmatized groups with movies: mediating and moderating processes of narrative persuasion”. International journal of communication, v. 11, pp. 158-177. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/5779

Igartua, Juan-José; Guerrero-Martín, Iñigo; Cachón-Ramón, Diego; Rodríguez-De-Dios, Isabel (2018). “Efecto de la similitud con el protagonista de narraciones contra el racismo en las actitudes hacia la inmigración: el rol mediador de la identificación con el protagonista”. Disertaciones. Anuario electrónico de estudios de comunicación social, v. 11, n. 1, pp. 56-75. https://doi.org/10.12804/revistas.urosario.edu.co/disertaciones/a.5272

Igartua, Juan-José; Rodríguez-Contreras, Laura (2020). “Narrative voice matters! Improving smoking prevention with testimonial messages through identification and cognitive processes”. International journal of environmental research and public health, v. 17, n. 19, pp. 7281. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17197281

Igartua, Juan-José; Vega-Casanova, Jair (2016). “Identification with characters, elaboration, and counterarguing in entertainment-education interventions through audiovisual fiction”. Journal of health communication, v. 21, n. 3, pp. 293-300. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2015.1064494

Igartua, Juan-José; Wojcieszak, Magdalena; Cachón-Ramón, Diego; Guerrero-Martín, Iñigo (2017). “‘If it hooks you, share it on social networks’. Joint effects of character similarity and imagined contact on the intention to share a short narrative in favor of immigration”. Revista latina de comunicación social, v. 72, pp. 1085-1106. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2017-1209

Igartua, Juan-José; Wojcieszak, Magdalena; Kim, Nuri (2019). “How the interplay of imagined contact and first-person narratives improves attitudes toward stigmatized immigrants: a conditional process model”. European journal of social psychology, v. 49, n. 2, pp. 385-397. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2509

Kaufman, Geoff F.; Libby, Lisa K. (2012). “Changing beliefs and behavior through experience-taking”. Journal of personality and social psychology, v. 103, n. 1, pp. 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027525

Kim, Minji (2019). “When similarity strikes back: conditional persuasive effects of character-audience similarity in anti-smoking campaign”. Human communication research, v. 45, n. 1, pp. 52-77. https://doi.org/10.1093/hcr/hqy013

Kovner, Bella; Zehavi, Adar; Golan, Daphna (2021). “Unaccompanied asylum-seeking youth in Greece: protection, liberation and criminalization”. The international journal of human rights, online first. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642987.2021.1874936

Kreuter, Matthew; Green, Melanie; Cappella, Joseph; Slater, Michael; Wise, Meg; Storey, Doug; Clark, Eddie; O’Keefe, Daniel; Erwin, Deborah; Holmes, Kathleen; Hinyard, Leslie; Houston, Thomas; Woolley, Sabra (2007). “Narrative communication in cancer prevention and control: a framework to guide research and application”. Annals of behavioral medicine, v. 33, pp. 221-235. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02879904

Llopis-Goig, Ramón (2020). “Presentación. Deporte e identidad nacional: articulaciones y desconexiones en contextos postnacionales”. Papeles del CEIC, International journal on collective identity research, v. 1, pp. 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1387/pceic.21471

Llopis-Goig, Ramón; Senyuva, Özgehan; Sonntag, Albrecht (2017). “Le nationalisme n’est plus ce qu’il était. Les formes d’identification contemporaines dans le football européen”. In: Gasparini, William (ed.). L’Europe du football. Sociohistoire d’une construction européenne. Strasbourg: Presses Universitaires de Strasbourg, pp. 155-170. ISBN: 978 2 86820 985 6

López-Belmonte, Jesús; López-Meneses, Eloy; Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; Fuentes-Cabrera, Arturo (2019). “Avanzando hacia la inclusión intercultural: percepciones de los menores extranjeros no acompañados de centros educativos españoles”. Revista de educación inclusiva, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 331-350. https://revistaeducacioninclusiva.es/index.php/REI/article/view/482

Mar-Molinero, Clare (2001). “Identidad nacional y educación bilingüe en el mundo hispano hablante”. Revista de educación, n. 326, pp. 79-97. http://www.educacionyfp.gob.es/dam/jcr:86099138-4fb5-4d3b-a0ff-87f008625f73/re32606-pdf.pdf

Mercader, Carla (2019). “40 entidades de vecinos tomarán Barcelona contra la inseguridad”. 20 minutos, 12 septiembre. https://www.20minutos.es/noticia/3761679/0/entidades-vecinos-manifestacion-inseguridad-tsunami-veinal

Ministry of Home Affairs (2020). Informe 2019 sobre la evolución de “los delitos de odio” en España. https://cutt.ly/9l0TnOF

Moyer-Gusé, Emily (2008). “Toward a theory of entertainment persuasion: explaining the persuasive effects of entertainment-education messages”. Communication theory, v. 18, n. 3, pp. 407-425. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2008.00328.x

Moyer-Gusé, Emily; Dale, Katherine R.; Ortiz, Michelle (2019). “Reducing prejudice through narratives: an examination of the mechanisms of vicarious intergroup contact”. Journal of media psychology: Theories, methods, and applications, v. 31, n. 4, pp. 185-195. https://doi.org/10.1027/1864-1105/a000249

Moyer-Gusé, Emily; Nabi, Robin L. (2010). “Explaining the effects of narrative in an entertainment television program: overcoming resistance to persuasion”. Human communication research, v. 36, n. 1, pp. 26-52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2009.01367.x

Müller, Floris (2009). “Entertainment anti-racism: multicultural television drama, identification and perceptions of ethnic threat”. Communications. European journal of communication research, v. 34, n. 3, pp. 239-256. https://doi.org/10.1515/COMM.2009.016

Murrar, Sohad; Brauer, Markus (2018). “Entertainment-education effectively reduces prejudice”. Group processes & intergroup relations, v. 21, n. 7, pp. 1053-1077. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430216682350

Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F.; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani (2015). “Influence of evidence type and narrative type on HPV risk perception and intention to obtain the HPV vaccine”. Health communication, v. 30, n. 3, pp. 301-308. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2014.888629

Nan, Xiaoli; Futerfas, Michelle; Ma, Zexin (2017). “Role of narrative perspective and modality in the persuasiveness of public service advertisements promoting HPV vaccination”. Health communication, v. 32, pp. 320-328. https://doi.org/10.1080/10410236.2016.1138379

O’Keefe, Daniel J. (2003). “Message properties, mediating states, and manipulation checks: claims, evidence, and data analysis in experimental persuasive message effects research”. Communication theory, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 251-274. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2003.tb00292.x

Ooms, Joëlle; Hoeks, John; Jansen, Carel (2019). “Hey, that could be me: the role of similarity in narrative persuasion”. PloS one, v. 14, n. 4, e0215359. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0215359

Park, Sung-Yeon (2012). “Mediated intergroup contact: concept explication, synthesis, and application”. Mass communication & society, v. 15, n. 1, pp. 136-159. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2011.558804

Pettigrew, Thomas F.; Tropp, Linda R. (2006). “A meta-analytic test of intergroup contact theory”. Journal of personality and social psychology, v. 90, n. 5, pp. 751-783. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.751

Plener, Paul; Groschwitz, Rebecca; Brähler, Elmar; Sukale, Thorsten; M. Fegert, Jörg (2017). “Unaccompanied refugee minors in Germany: attitudes of the general population towards a vulnerable group”. European child & adolescent psychiatry, v. 26, n. 6, pp. 733-742. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00787-017-0943-9

Shapiro, Michael A. (2002). “Generalizability in communication research”. Human communication research, v. 28, n. 4, pp. 491-500. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.2002.tb00819.x

Shen, Fuyuan; Sheer, Vivian C.; Li, Ruobing (2015). “Impact of narratives on persuasion in health communication: a meta-analysis”. Journal of advertising, v. 44, n. 2, pp. 105-113. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2015.1018467

Shen, Lijiang (2015). “Targeting smokers with empathy appeal antismoking public service announcements: a field experiment”. Journal of health communication, v. 20, n. 5, pp. 573-580. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2015.1012236

Slater, Michael D.; Rouner, Donna (2002). “Entertainment-education and elaboration likelihood: understanding the processing of narrative persuasion”. Communication theory, v. 12, n. 2, pp. 173-191. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2002.tb00265.x

Stigel, Jørgen (2001). “TV advertising virtually speaking: the invisible voice elaborating on the space between screen and viewer”. In: Agger, Gunhild; Jensen Jens F. (eds.). The aesthetics of television. Aalborg: Aalborg University Press, pp. 321-348. ISBN: 87 7307 623 6

Tajfel, Henri (1982). Social identity and intergroup relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978 0 521246163

Tukachinsky, Riva (2014). “Experimental manipulation of psychological involvement with media”. Communication methods and measures, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 1-33. https://doi.org/10.1080/19312458.2013.873777

Valkenburg, Patti M.; Peter, Jochen; Walther, Joseph B. (2016). “Media effects: theory and research”. Annual review of psychology, v. 67, pp. 315-338. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033608

Van-Krieken, Kobie; Hoeken, Hans; Sanders, José (2017). “Evoking and measuring identification with narrative characters - A linguistic cues framework”. Frontiers in psychology, v. 8, article 1190. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01190

Vezzali, Loris; Di-Bernardo, Gian-Antonio; Stathi, Sofia; Visintin, Emilio-Paolo; Hewstone, Miles (2019). “Using intercultural videos of direct contact to implement vicarious contact: a school-based intervention that improves intergroup attitudes”. Group processes & intergroup relations, v. 22, n. 7, pp. 1059-1076. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430218809885

Vezzali, Loris; Hewstone, Miles; Capozza, Dora; Giovannini, Dino; Wölfer, Ralf (2014). “Improving intergroup relations with extended and vicarious forms of indirect contact”. European review of social psychology, v. 25, n. 1, pp. 314-389. https://doi.org/10.1080/10463283.2014.982948

Walter, Nathan; Cohen, Jonathan (2019). “When less is more and more is less: the paradoxical metacognitive effects of counterarguing”. Communication monographs, v. 86, n. 3, pp. 377-397. https://doi.org/10.1080/03637751.2019.1580378

Walter, Nathan; Murphy, Sheila T.; Frank, Lauren B.; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes (2017). “Each medium tells a different story: the effect of message channel on narrative persuasion”. Communication research reports, v. 34, n. 2, pp. 161-170. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2017.1286471

Wojcieszak, Magdalena; Garrett, R. Kelly (2018). “Social identity, selective exposure, and affective polarization: how priming national identity shapes attitudes toward immigrants via news selection”. Human communication research, v. 44, n. 3, pp. 247-273. https://doi.org/10.1093/hcr/hqx010

Wojcieszak, Magdalena; Kim, Nuri; Igartua, Juan-José (2020). “How to enhance the effects of mediated intergroup contact? Evidence from four countries”. Mass communication & society, v. 23, n. 1, pp. 71-106. https://doi.org/10.1080/15205436.2019.1630444

Descargas

Publicado

2021-03-05

Cómo citar

Guerrero-Martín, I., & Igartua, J.-J. (2021). Reduction of prejudice toward unaccompanied foreign minors through audiovisual narratives. Effects of the similarity and of the narrative voice. Profesional De La Información, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.03

Número

Sección

Artículos de investigación / Research articles

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.