How European adolescents get engaged with films?: Psychometric properties of the narrative engagement scale



Palabras clave:

Narrative engagement, Cross-cultural reception, Media entertainment, Audience responses, Adolescents, Film reception, Perceived realism, Engagement


Narrative engagement is a fundamental factor in understanding the enjoyment of narratives and their effects. This study seeks to develop a measure of engagement for youngsters and to gather evidence of validity and reliability for a sample of European adolescents. After watching a dramatic film, 310 European high school students (68.71% Italian, 17.74% Spanish and 13.55% German) responded to the proposed narrative engagement scale. The results confirmed the existence of a common factorial model of four factors for Germans and Italians and invariance measurement between samples. The mean score comparison shows that German adolescents have a greater understanding of the narrative than Italians. Also, Germans demonstrated greater emotional understanding than Spaniards. These results contribute to the comprehension of the narrative engagement and illuminate the conceptualization of the psychological phenomena related to the reception of dramatic narratives by youngsters of different cultures across Europe.

Biografía del autor/a

Maria-Teresa Soto-Sanfiel, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

María T. Soto-Sanfiel is Associate Professor at the Audiovisual Communication and Advertising Department at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. She is the principal investigator of the research. She holds a PhD in Audiovisual Communication.

Ariadna Angulo-Brunet, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Ariadna Angulo-Brunet is Adjunct lecturer at Departament de Psicobiologia i de Metodologia de les Ciències de la Salut at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. She holds a PhD in Psychology.


Banerjee, Smita C.; Greene, Kathryn (2012). “Role of transportation in the persuasion process: Cognitive and affective responses to antidrug narratives”. Journal of health communication, v. 17, n. 5, pp. 564-581.

Barbato, Jean-Christophe (2008). La diversité culturelle en droit communautaire: contribution à l’analyse de la spécificité de la construction européenne. Presses Universitaires d’Aix-Marseille. ISBN: 978 2 731405965

Barrouillet, Pierre; Lepine, Raphaelle (2005). “Working memory and children’s use of retrieval to solve addition problems”. Journal of experimental child psychology, v. 91, n. 3, pp. 183-204.

Bergfelder, Tim (2005). “National, transnational or supranational cinema? Rethinking European film studies”. Media, culture and society, v. 27, n. 3, pp. 315-331.

Bilandzic, Helena; Busselle, Rick W. (2011). “Enjoyment of films as a function of narrative experience, perceived realism and transportability”. Communications, v. 36, n. 1, pp. 29-50.

Brink, Pamela J. (1999). “Transcultural versus cross-cultural”. Journal of transcultural nursing, v. 16, n. 5, 344-346.

Busselle, Rick W.; Bilandzic, Helena (2008). “Fictionality and perceived realism in experiencing stories: A model of narrative comprehension and engagement”. Communication theory, v. 18, n. 2, pp. 255-280.

Busselle, Rick W.; Bilandzic, Helena (2009). “Measuring narrative engagement”. Media psychology, v. 12, n. 4, pp. 321-347.

Cantor, Muriel G.; Cantor, Joel M. (1986). “Audience composition and television content: The mass audience revisited”. In: Ball-Rokeach, Sandra; Cantor. Muriel G. Media, audience, and social structure. Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 214-225. ISBN: 0803925816

Castells, Manuel (1996). The rise of the networked society. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chen, Fang-Fang (2007). “Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance”. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, v. 14, n. 3, pp. 464-504.

Cheung, Gordon W.; Rensvold, Roger B. (2002). “Evaluating goodness-of- fit indexes for testing measurement invariance”. Structural equation modeling: A multidisciplinary journal, v. 9, n. 2, pp. 233-255.

Cho, Hyunyi; Shen, Lijiang; Wilson, Kari (2014). “Perceived realism: Dimensions and roles in narrative persuasion”. Communication research, v. 41, n. 6, pp. 828-851.

Cohen, Jonathan (2001). “Defining identification: A theoretical look at the identification of audiences with media characters”. Mass communication & society, v. 4, n. 3, pp. 245-264.

Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly (1997). Finding glow: the psychology of engagement with everyday life. New York: Basic Books. ISBN: 0 465 0451 3 8

De-Vinck, Sophie (2011). Revolutionary road? Looking back at the position of the European film sector and the results of European-level film support in view of their digital future. A critical assessment. Doctoral dissertation. Brussels: Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Esser, Andrea; Keinonen, Heidi; Jensen, Pia-Majbritt; Lemor, Anna-Maria (2015). “The duality of banal transnationalism and banal nationalism: Television audiences and the musical talent competition genre”. In: Moran, Albert; Jensen, Pia-Majbritt; Aveyard, Karina. Global television formats. State of the art. Bristol: Intellect, pp. 295-309. ISBN: 978 1 783207121

European Commission (2012). Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. Promoting cultural and creative sectors for growth and jobs in the EU. Brussels: EC.

European Commission (2014a). European film in the digital era. Bridging cultural diversity and competitiveness. COM(2014) 272 final. Brussels: EC.

European Commission (2014b). A profile of current and future audiovisual audience. Executive summary. Tender EAC/08/2012 Ref. Ares (2012) 701765 – 12/06/2012. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Fu, W. Wayne (2013) “National audience tastes in Hollywood film genres: cultural distance and linguistic affinity”. Communication research, v. 40, n. 6, pp. 789-817.

Gerbner, George; Gross, Larry (1976) “Living with television: The violence profile”. Journal of communication, v. 26, n. 2, pp. 172-194.

Graesser, Arthur C.; Singer, Murray; Trabasso, Tom (1994). “Constructing inferences during narrative text comprehension”. Psychological review, v. 101, n. 3, pp. 371-395.

Green, Melanie C. (2004). “Transportation into narrative worlds: The role of prior knowledge and perceived realism”. Discourse processes, v. 38, n. 2, pp. 247-266.

Green, Melanie C.; Brock, Timothy C. (2000). “The role of transportation in the persuasiveness of public narratives”. Journal of personality and social psychology, v. 79, n. 5, pp. 701-721.

Green, Melanie C.; Brock, Timothy C. (2002). “In the mind’s eye: Transportation-imagery model of narrative persuasion”. In: Green, Melanie C.; Strange, Jeffrey J.; Brock, Timothy C. Narrative impact: social and cognitive foundations. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 315-341. ISBN: 978 1 410606648

Green, Melanie C.; Brock, Timothy C.; Kaufman, Geoff F. (2004). “Understanding media enjoyment: The role of transportation into narrative worlds”. Communication theory, v. 14, n. 1, pp. 311-327.

Hall, Alice (2003). “Reading realism: audiences’ evaluations of the reality of media texts”. Journal of communication, v. 53, n. 4, pp. 299-320.

Hambleton, Ronald K. (1996). “Adaptación de tests para su uso en diferentes idiomas y culturas: fuentes de error, posibles soluciones y directrices practices”. En: Muñiz-Fernández, José. Psicometría. Madrid: Universitas, pp. 207-238. ISBN: 84 7991 047 X

Haverty, Lisa A.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.; Klahr, David; Alibali, Martha W. (2000). “Solving inductive reasoning problems in mathematics: Not so trivial pursuit”. Cognitive science, v. 24, n. 2. pp. 249-298.

Hofstede, Geert; McCrae, Robert R. (2004). “Personality and culture revisited: Linking traits and dimensions of culture”. Cross-cultural research, v. 38, n. 1, pp. 52-88.

Hu, Li-Tze; Bentler, Peter M. (1999). “Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives”. Structural equation modeling, v. 6, n. 1, pp. 1-55.

Igartua-Perosanz, Juan-José (2007). Persuasión narrativa. Alicante: Editorial Club Universitario. ISBN: 978 84 84545965

Igartua-Perosanz, Juan-José; Muñiz, Carlos (2008). “Identification with the characters and enjoyment with features films. An empirical research”. Comunicación y sociedad, v. 21, n. 1, pp. 25-52.

Johnson-Laird, Phillipe N. (1983). Mental models: Towards a cognitive science of language, inference and consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978 0 674568822

Jöreskog, Karl G.; Sörbom, Dag (2006). Lisrel 8.80 for Windows. Lincolnwood, IL: Scientific Software International, Inc.

Katz, Elihu; Liebes, Tamar (1984). “Once upon a time, in Dallas”. Intermedia, v. 12, n. 3, pp. 28-32.

Kintsch, Walter (1988). “The role of knowledge in discourse comprehension: A construction integration model”. Psychological review, v. 95, n. 2, pp. 163-182.

Krakowiak, K. Maja; Oliver, Mary-Beth (2012). “When good characters do bad things: examining the effect of moral ambiguity on enjoyment”. Journal of communication, v. 62, n. 1, pp. 117-135.

Lissitz, Robert W.; Green, Samuel B. (1975). “Effect of the number of scale points on reliability: A Monte Carlo approach”. Journal of applied psychology, v. 60, n. 1, pp. 10-13.

Mangen, Anne; Kuiken, Don (2014). “Lost in an iPad: Narrative engagement on paper and tablet”. Scientific study of literature, v. 4, n. 2, pp. 150-177.

Marsh, Herbert W.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Wen, Zhonglin (2004). “In search of golden rules: Comment on hypothesis-testing approaches to setting cutoff values for fit indexes and dangers in overgeneralizing Hu and Bentler’s (1999) findings”. Structural equation modeling: A multidisciplinary journal, v. 11, n. 3, pp. 320-341.

McDonald, Roderick P. (1999). Test theory: A unified treatment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN: 978 1 410601087

McQueen, Amy; Kreuter, Mathew W.; Kalesan, Bindu; Alcaraz, Kassandra I. (2011). “Understanding narrative effects: The impact of breast cancer survivor stories on message processing, attitudes, and beliefs among African American women”. Health psychology, v. 30, n. 6, pp. 674-82.

Mellor, David; Moore, Kathleen A. (2014). “The use of Likert scales with children”. Journal of pediatric psychology, v. 39, n. 3, pp. 369-379.

Morley, David (1992). Television, audiences and cultural studies. London: Routledge. ISBN: 0 415 05 445

Moyer-Gusé, Emily (2010). “Preference for television programs about sexual risk: The role of program genre and perceived message intent”. Media psychology, v. 13, n. 2, pp. 180-199.

Muñiz, José; Elosua, Paula; Hambleton, Ronald K. (2013). “Directrices para la traducción y adaptación de los tests”. Psicothema, v. 25, n. 2, pp. 151-157.

Nabi, Robin L.; Stitt, Carmen R.; Halford, Jeff; Finnerty, Keli L. (2006). “Emotional and cognitive predictors of the enjoyment of reality-based and fictional television programming: An elaboration of the uses and gratifications perspective”. Media psychology, v. 8, n. 4, pp. 421-447.

Najarian, Kristy M. (2016). The persuasive power of video game narratives: Addressing empathy and attitudes toward people with mental illness. Graduate theses. Rhode Island: Bryant University.

Nunnally, Jum C.; Bernstein, Ira H. (1994). Psychometric theory. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Oh, Jeeyun; Chung, Mun-Young; Han, Sangyong (2014). “The more control, the better? The effects of user control on movie trailer immersion and enjoyment”. Journal of media psychology, v. 26, pp. 81-91.

Oliver, Mary-Beth (2003). “Mood management and selective exposure”. In: Bryant, Jennings; Roskos-Ewoldsen, David R.; Cantor, Joanne. Communication and emotion: Essays in honor of Dolf Zillmann. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 85-106. ISBN: 0 8058 4032 X

Oliver, Mary-Beth; Bartsch, Anne (2010). “Appreciation as audience response: Exploring entertainment gratifications beyond hedonism”. Human communication research, v. 36, n. 1, pp. 53-81.

Piaget, Jean (1954). The construction of reality in the child. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Slater, Michael D. (2002). “Entertainment education and the persuasive impact of narratives”. In: Green, Melanie C.; Strange, Jeffrey J.; Brock, Timothy C. Narrative impact: social and cognitive foundations. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum, pp. 157-181. ISBN: 978 1 410606648

Slater, Michael D.; Rouner, Donna; Long, Marilee (2006). “Television dramas and support for controversial public policies: Effects and mechanisms”. Journal of communication, v. 56, n. 2, pp. 235-252.

Soto-Sanfiel, Maria T. (2015). “Engagement and mobile listening”. International journal of mobile communications, v. 13, n. 1.

Soto-Sanfiel, Maria T.; Igartua-Perosanz, Juan-José (2016). “Cultural proximity and interactivity in the processes of narrative reception”. International journal of arts and technology, v. 9, n. 2, pp. 87-107.

Straubhaar, Joseph (2003). “Choosing national TV: Cultural capital, language, and cultural proximity in Brazil”. In: Elasmar, Michael G. The impact of international television: A paradigm shift. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 77-110. ISBN: 978 1 410607041

Sukalla, Freya; Bilandzic, Helena; Bolls, Paul D.; Busselle, Rick W. (2016). “Embodiment of narrative engagement. Connecting self-reported narrative engagement to psychophysiological measures”. Journal of media psychology, v. 28, n. 4, pp. 175-186.

Trepte, Sabine (2008). “Cultural proximity in TV entertainment: An eight-country study on the relationship of nationality and the evaluation of US prime-time fiction”. Communications, v. 33, n. 1, pp. 1-26.

Tsaousi, Aikaterini (2016). Sound effect labelling in subtitling for the deaf and hard-of-hearing. An experimental study on audience reception. Doctoral dissertation. Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

Tsay-Vogel, Mina; Oliver, Mary-Beth (2014). “Is watching others self-disclose enjoyable? An examination of the effects of information delivery in entertainment media”. Journal of media psychology, v. 26, n. 3, pp. 111-124.

Van-de-Schoot, Rens; Lugtig, Peter; Hox, Joop (2012). “A checklist for testing measurement invariance”. European journal of developmental psychology, v. 9, n. 4, pp. 486-492.

Van-Leeuwen, Lonneke (2015). I was totally there! Understanding engagement in entertainment-education narratives. Doctoral dissertation. Wageningen: Wageningen University. ISBN: 978 94 6257 336 9

Viladrich, Carme; Angulo-Brunet, Ariadna; Doval, Eduardo (2017). “A journey around alpha and omega to estimate internal consistency reliability”. Annals of psychology, v. 33, n. 3, pp. 755-782.

Zwaan, Rolf A.; Magliano, Joseph P.; Graesser, Arthur C. (1995). “Dimensions of situation model construction in narrative comprehension”. Journal of experimental psychology: Learning, memory, and cognition, v. 21, n. 2, pp. 386-397.




Cómo citar

Soto-Sanfiel, M.-T., & Angulo-Brunet, A. (2020). How European adolescents get engaged with films?: Psychometric properties of the narrative engagement scale. Profesional De La información, 29(5).



Artículos de investigación / Research articles


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.


Cargando métricas ...