Fake news y coronavirus: detección de los principales actores y tendencias a través del análisis de las conversaciones en Twitter

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.may.08

Palabras clave:

Coronavirus, Covid-19, Pandemias, Salud, Crisis sanitarias, Información de salud, Noticias falsas, Difusión de información, Desinformación, Conversación, Comunicación política, Medios sociales, Análisis de redes sociales, Twitter, NodeXL, Donald Trump.

Resumen

La crisis sanitaria global surgida por la expansión del Covid-19 ha llevado a la OMS a acuñar el término infodemia para definir una situación de miedo e inseguridad en la que la difusión de información falsa se ha generalizado. Estos bulos se aprovechan de este tipo de emociones para propagarse más rápido que el propio coronavirus, generando a su paso temor y desconfianza en la población. La difusión de estas mentiras, parte de las cuales circula por las redes sociales, resulta peligrosa porque afecta a la salud y puede hacer que se agrave el contagio y provocar la muerte de personas. Esta investigación tiene como objetivo analizar y visualizar la red tejida alrededor de las noticias falsas que circulan en Twitter sobre la pandemia del coronavirus mediante la técnica del análisis de redes sociales. Se ha empleado el software NodeXL Pro. Se han utilizado varias medidas de centralidad para generar la red de conexiones entre los usuarios, representar sus patrones de interacción e identificar los actores clave dentro de la estructura. Además, también se ha creado una red semántica para descubrir las diferencias en la forma en que los grupos de personas hablan sobre el tema. Los resultados muestran que la situación en EUA domina la conversación, pese a que en ese momento apenas registraba casos y Europa se había convertido en el epicentro global del Covid-19. A pesar de las acusaciones de inacción de periodistas y críticos del gobierno de Trump, se observan varias semanas en las que la desinformación distrae de tomar medidas más eficaces y prevenir verdaderamente el contagio. Además, entre los actores con posiciones más destacadas en la red se constata la escasa presencia de científicos e instituciones que ayuden a desmentir los bulos y expliquen las medidas de higiene. 

Biografía del autor/a

Jesus-Angel Pérez-Dasilva, Universidad del País Vasco

Licenciado (1998) y doctor (2006) en Periodismo por la UPV/EHU, donde ejerce de profesor desde 2001. Ha sido vicedecano de la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y de la Comunicación (2009-2012), director del Máster de Comunicación Social (2016-2018) y miembro de la Comisión Universitaria de Evaluación Docente (2016-2019).

Es miembro el grupo de investigación Gureiker (grupo A del sistema universitario vasco). Ha sido profesor visitante en la Universidad de Cambridge (UK, 2012) y en la Universidad de Sevilla (2010). Ha participado en el programa Erasmus+ para la movilidad del profesorado en las siguientes universidades: Universidad de Trieste (Italia, 2011), Universidad de Beira interior (Portugal, 2013), Universidad de Oporto (Portugal, 2015), Universidad do Minho (Portugal, 2016), Universidad de Wroclaw (Polonia, 2017 y 2019).

Ha participado en 20 proyectos de investigación siendo en 5 de ellos el investigador principal. Es coautor de 46 artículos científicos, 32 capítulos de libro y de 70 contribuciones en congresos nacionales e internacionales. Cuenta con 2 sexenios reconocidos por la CNEAI. Sus líneas de investigación se centran en la transformación digital del periodismo. Sus últimos trabajos están relacionados con la audiencia, la interactividad y las redes sociales

Koldobika Meso-Ayerdi, Universidad del País Vasco

Es profesor titular y director del Departamento de Periodismo II de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU). Es doctor en Periodismo por la misma universidad. Miembro de los grupos de investigación: Gureiker (UPV/EHU) e Infotendencias (financiado por el Micinn), participa en varios proyectos nacionales e internacionales, en los que estudia la transformación del periodismo en el entorno digital. Su principal interés de investigación es la audiencia y la interactividad.

Terese Mendiguren-Galdospín, Universidad del País Vasco

Es profesora en el Departamento de Periodismo II de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU). Autora de trabajos sobre ciberperiodismo, investiga tendencias del periodismo contemporáneo como el periodismo ciudadano o el empleo de las redes sociales en la difusión de la información. Es miembro del grupo consolidado Gureiker.

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2020-05-08

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Pérez-Dasilva, J.-A., Meso-Ayerdi, K., & Mendiguren-Galdospín, T. (2020). Fake news y coronavirus: detección de los principales actores y tendencias a través del análisis de las conversaciones en Twitter. Profesional De La Información, 29(3). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.may.08

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Artículos de investigación Covid-19 / Covid-19 research articles

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