Comunicación corporativa, relaciones públicas y gestión del riesgo reputacional en tiempos del Covid-19

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.mar.20

Palabras clave:

Covid-19, Coronavirus, Pandemias, Comunicación corporativa, Comunicación organizacional, Comunicación de crisis, Comunicación interna, Relaciones públicas, Responsabilidad social corporativa, RSC, Riesgo reputacional.

Resumen

La crisis del Covid-19 ha puesto a prueba muchos procesos propios de las estructuras sociales. La comunicación corporativa y las relaciones públicas son ejemplos de estos procesos que se enfrentan a una situación inédita, difícilmente prevista y de la que habrá que sacar unas lecciones de cara al futuro. En este artículo, mezcla de investigación y ensayo, pretendemos, en base a la teoría, pero a partir de la experiencia y de algunos estudios llevados a cabo por profesionales de la comunicación, reflexionar sobre cómo afecta y condicionará la crisis de la pandemia del Covid-19 a la práctica de la comunicación corporativa en general, y de dos de sus áreas de especialización, la comunicación interna y la responsabilidad social corporativa (RSC). Hacemos hincapié en la importancia de que las organizaciones asuman que la reputación es un riesgo y que ese riesgo debe ser gestionado con las técnicas y herramientas propias de las relaciones públicas, pues si algo ha puesto de manifiesto la crisis de la pandemia del llamado coronavirus ha sido la importancia para las organizaciones y marcas de la gestión de unas relaciones de confianza con sus públicos.

Citas

Arthur W. Page Society (2017). “The CEO view: communications at the center of the enterprise”. https://page.org/thought-leadership/the-ceo-view-communications-at-the-center-of-the-enterprise

Behavioral Insights Research Center (2020). “Using social and behavioural science to support COVID-19 pandemic response”. https://instituteforpr.org/behavioral-insights-research-center/about-birc

Blumer, Harold (1946). “Collective behavior”. In: Lee, Algred McCung (ed.). New outlines of the principle of sociology. New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN: 978 0 064600262

Carreras, Enrique; Alloza, Ángel; Carreras, Ana (2013). Reputación corporativa. Madrid: LID Editorial. ISBN: 978 84 83567210

Coombs, W. Timothy (1995). “Choosing the right words: The development of guidelines for the selection of the ‘appropriate’ crisis-response strategies”. Management communication quarterly, v. 8, n. 4, pp. 447-476. https://doi.org/10.1177/0893318995008004003

Coombs, W. Timothy (1998). “An analytic framework for crisis situations: Better responses from a better understanding of the situation”. Journal of public relations research, v. 10, n. 3, pp. 177-191. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532754xjprr1003_02

Coombs, W. Timothy (2006). “The prospective power of crisis response strategies: Managing reputational assets during a crisis”. Journal of promotion management, v. 12, n. 3-4, pp. 241-260. https://doi.org/10.1300/J057v12n03_13

Coombs, W. Timothy (2012). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding, 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. ISBN: 978 1 412983105

Corporate Excellence; IE Business School (2016). “Informe de tendencias en gestión de intangibles”. https://www.corporateexcellence.org/recurso/approaching-the-future-informe-de-tendencias-en/e3b17de7-818c-435c-8c7a-089ad8f2eaf3

Cuenca, Joan; Verazzi, Laura (2018) Guía fundamental de la comunicación interna. Barcelona: Editorial UOC. ISBN: 978 84 91802723

Dewey, John (2004). La opinión pública y sus problemas. Madrid: Ediciones Morata. ISBN: 978 84 71124883

Diezhandino, María-Pilar (2012). El periodista en la encrucijada. Barcelona: Fundación Telefónica. ISBN: 978 84 08008248

Edelman (2019). “Trust barometer global report”. https://www.edelman.com/sites/g/files/aatuss191/files/2019-02/2019_Edelman_Trust_Barometer_Global_Report_2.pdf

Edelman (2020). “Brand trust and the coronavirus pandemic”. https://www.edelman.com/research/covid-19-brand-trust-report

Edwards, Lee (2006). “Rethinking power in public relations”. Public relations review, v. 32, n. 3, pp. 229-231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2006.05.013

Edwards, Lee (2014). Power, diversity and public relations, Londres: Routledge. ISBN: 978 0 415811958

Ferruz-González, Sonia-Aránzazu (2018). Reputación corporativa. Estudio del concepto y las metodologías para su medición: propuesta de un concepto y metodología de consenso. Tesis doctoral. Madrid: Universidad Complutense de Madrid. https://eprints.ucm.es/47772

Fombrun, Charles J.; Gardberg, Naomi A.; Sever, Joy M. (2000). “The reputation quotient: A multi-stakeholder measure of corporate reputation”. Journal of brand management, v. 7, n. 4, pp. 241-255. https://doi.org/10.1057/bm.2000.10

Fombrun, Charles. J.; Ponzi, Leonard J.; Newburry, William (2015). “Stakeholder tracking and analysis: The RepTrak system for measuring corporate reputation”. Corporate reputation review, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 3-24. https://doi.org/10.1057/crr.2014.21

Fombrun, Charles. J.; Shanley, Mark (1990). “What’s in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy”. Academy of Management journal, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 233-258. https://doi.org/ 10.2307/256324

Grunig, James E. (1976). Communication behaviors occurring in decision and non-decision situations. Journalism quarterly, v. 53, pp. 252-286. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769907605300209

Grunig, James E. (1983). Communication behaviors and attitudes of environmental publics: Two studies. Journalism monographs, v. 81.

Grunig, James E.; Hunt, Todd (1984). Managing public relations, Fort Worth, NJ: Rinehart and Wilson. ISBN: 978 0 030583377

Grunig, James E.; Repper, Fred C. (1992). “Strategic management, publics, and issues”. In: J. E. Grunig, James E. (ed.). Excellence in public relations and communication management, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN: 978 0 805802276

Hamori, Monika (2003). “The impact of reputation capital on the career paths of departing employees”. Journal of intellectual capital, v. 4, n. 3, pp. 304-315. https://doi.org/10.1108/14691930310487770

Hansen, Mark; Roca-Sales, Meritxell; Keegan, Jonathan M.; King, George (2017). Artificial untelligence: Practice and implications for journalism. Columbia University Libraries; Tow Center for Digital Journalism. https://doi.org/10.7916/D8X92PRD

Herrero-Curiel, Eva (2015). “La credibilidad de las redes sociales en el ámbito periodístico”. Transinformação, v. 27, n. 2, pp. 165-171. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-37862015000200006

Hutton, James G.; Goodman, Michael B.; Alexander, Jill B.; Genest, Christina M. (2001). “Reputation management: the new face of corporate public relations?”. Public relations review, v. 27, n. 3, pp. 247-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111(01)00085-6

Kamins; Michael A.; Brand, Meribeth J.; Hoeke, Stuart A.; Moe, John C. (2013). “Two-sided versus one-sided celebrity endorsements: The impact on advertising effectiveness and credibility”. Journal of advertising, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 4-10. https://doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1989.10673146

Kim, Heevon; Pilny, Aandrew (2019). “The use of enterprise social media and its disparate effects on the social connectivity of globally dispersed workers”. International journal of business communication, pp. 1-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329488419877233

Laurent, Éloi (2019). Économie de la confiance. Paris: La Découverte. ISBN: 978 2 348043550

Ledingham, John A.; Bruning, Stephen D. (1998). “Relationship management in public relations: dimensions of an organization-public relationship”. Public relations review, v. 24, n. 1, pp. 55-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0363-8111(98)80020-9

Lee, Yeunjae; Li, Jo-Yun-Queenie (2020). “The value of internal communication in enhancing employees’ health information disclosure intentions in the workplace”. Public relations review, v. 46, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.101872

Lindén, Carl-Gustav (2017). “Algorithms for journalism: The future of news work”. The journal of media innovations, v. 4, n. 1, pp. 60-76. https://doi.org/10.5617/jmi.v4i1.2420

Luc Beauregard Centre of Excellence in Communications Research (2017) “The CEO Communication Audit”. https://www.concordia.ca/content/dam/jmsb/docs/research-centres/luc-beauregard/CEO-Summit-report.pdf

Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Lara-Navarra, Pablo (2015). “El big data transforma la interpretación de los medios sociales”. El profesional de la información, v. 23, n. 6, pp. 575-581. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2014.nov.03

Mazmanian, Melissa (2013). “Avoiding the trap of constant connectivity: When congruent frames allow for heterogeneous practices”. Academy of Management journal, v. 56, pp. 1225-1250. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2010.0787

McKie, David; Lawniczak, Ryszard (2009). “Economics and public relations in a time of downturn: Dismal science, unseen history, and the need for dialogue”. Public relations review, v. 35, n. 4, pp. 335-339. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2009.08.008

Men, Linjuan-Rita (2014). “Internal reputation management: the impact of authentic leadership and transparent communication”. Corporate reputation review, v. 17, n. 4, pp. 254-272. https://doi.org/10.1057/crr.2014.14

Men, Linjuan-Rita; Yue, Cen-April (2019). “Creating a positive emotional culture: Effect of internal communication and impact on employee supportive behaviors”. Public relations review, v. 45, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.03.001

Miquel-Segarra, Susana; Aced-Toledano, Cristina (2019). “Objectives and difficulties in the evaluation of internal communication in Spanish companies”. El profesional de la información, v. 28, n. 5, e280521. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.sep.21

O’Neil, Julie; Eisenmann, Marianne (2017). “An examination of how source classification impacts credibility and consumer behavior”. Public relations review, v. 43, n. 2, pp. 278-292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2017.02.011

O’Neil, Julie; Ewing, Michele; Smith, Stacey; Williams, Sean (2018) “A Delphi study to identify standards for internal communication”. Public relations journal, v. 11, n. 3. https://prjournal.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/1.-A-Delphi-Study-to-Identify-Standards-for-IC-.pdf

Orangefiery (2020). “Leadership communications during COVID-19: A survey of U.S. organizations”. https://orangefiery.com/2020/04/03/leadership-communications-during-covid-19-survey

Roberts, Peter W.; Dowling, Grahame R. (2002). “Corporate reputation and sustained superior financial performance”. Strategic management journal, v. 23, n. 12, pp. 1077-1093. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.274

Schaarschmidt, Mario; Walsh, Gianfranco; Ivens, Stefan (2015). “Perceived external reputation as a driver of organizational citizenship behavior: Replication and extension”. Corporate reputation review, v. 18, n. 4, pp. 314-336. https://doi.org/10.1057/crr.2015.19

Schmertz, Herb; Novak, William (1987). El silencio no es rentable. Barcelona: Planeta. ISBN: 978 84 32078873

Sotillo, Sandra (2017). La gestión profesional de la reputación del CEO como elemento generador de valor para las organizaciones. Tesis doctoral. Castellón: Universitat Jaume I. https://www.tdx.cat/handle/10803/405335#page=1

Ter Hoeven, Claartje L.; Van Zoonen, Ward (2020). “Helping others and feeling engaged in the context of workplace flexibility: The importance of communication control”. International journal of business communication, v. 57, n. 3, pp. 1-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/2329488419898799

Túñez-López, José-Miguel; Toural-Bran, Carlos; Cacheiro-Requeijo, Santiago (2018). “Uso de bots y algoritmos para automatizar la redacción de noticias: percepción y actitudes de los periodistas en España”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 4, pp. 750-758. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.jul.04

UK PR Industry (2020). “#FuturePRoof survey reveals drastic impact of COVID-19 on UK PR industry”. https://www.futureproofingcomms.co.uk/thelatest/2020/3/22/futureproof-survey-reveals-drastic-impact-of-covid-19-on-uk-pr-industry

Wæraas, Arild; Dahle, Dag-Yngve (2019). “When reputation management is people management: Implications for employee voice”. European management journal, v. 38, n. 2, pp. 277-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2019.08.010

Weber Shandwick (2012), “The company behind the brand: In reputation we trust - CEO spotlight”. https://www.webershandwick.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/04/CEO_Spotlight_ExecSummary.pdf

Weigelt, Keith; Camerer, Colin (1988). “Reputation and corporate strategy: A review of recent theory”. Strategic management journal, v, 9, n. 5, pp. 443-455. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.4250090505

Woods, Chelsea L. (2016). “When more than reputation is at risk: How two hospitals responded to Ebola”. Public relations review, v. 42, n. 5, pp. 893-902. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2016.10.002

Xifra, Jordi (2011). “Subsidios informativos y función documental de las salas de prensa online de los ministerios españoles”. El profesional de la información, v. 20, n. 3, pp. 270-275. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2011.may.04

Xifra, Jordi (2017). Manual de relaciones públicas e institucionales (3ª ed.). Madrid: Tecnos. ISBN: 978 84 30972135

Xifra, Jordi; Ordeix, Enric (2009). “Managing reputational risk in an economic downturn: The case of Banco Santander”. Public relations review, v. 35, n. 4, pp. 353-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2009.08.004

Yoon, Eunsang; Guffey, Hugh J.; Kijewski, Valerie (1993). “The effects of information and company reputation on intentions to buy a business service”. Journal of business research, v. 27, n. 3, pp. 215-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/0148-2963(93)90027-M

Yue, Cen-April; Men, Linjuan-Rita; Ferguson, Mary-Ann (2019). “Bridging transformational leadership, transparent communication, and employee openness to change: The mediating role of trust”. Public relations review, v. 45, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.04.012

Zerfass, Ansgar; Tench, Ralph; Verhoeven, Piet; Verčič, Dejan; Moreno, Ángeles (2018). European communication monitor 2018. Strategic communication and the challenges of fake news, trust, leadership, work, stress and job satisfaction. Bruselas: EACD/Euprera, Quadriga Media. http://www.communicationmonitor.eu/2018/06/13/ecm-european-communication-monitor-2018

Descargas

Publicado

2020-04-22

Cómo citar

Xifra, J. (2020). Comunicación corporativa, relaciones públicas y gestión del riesgo reputacional en tiempos del Covid-19. Profesional De La Información, 29(2). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.mar.20

Número

Sección

Artículos de investigación Covid-19 / Covid-19 research articles

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.