AI application in journalism: ChatGPT and the uses and risks of an emergent technology



Palabras clave:

Journalism, Artificial intelligence, AI, ChatGPT, Automated journalism, Computational journalism, Hi-tech, Journalistic ethics, Journalists


AI integration in media newsrooms is changing professional routines, required profiles and journalistic products. The acceleration in the development of this technology since the end of 2022 makes it necessary to review these tools in order to analyse their uses and risks, as well as their possible applications in the journalistic field. OpenAI launched ChatGPT in November 2022 open to the public. This tool has been a key element in this technological revolution. This paper analyses ChatGPT applications in journalistic newsrooms through its introduction during a working day in the routine of different professionals. A mixed methodology was used to carry out this experience: a benchmarking of AI tools applied to journalism was created, a walkthrough experience was carried out with ChatGPT and, based on the results obtained in these first two phases, the experiment with journalists was designed. A total of 12 journalists of different ages and sectors with little or no previous contact with technological tools based on artificial intelligence, as the aim of the study is to observe the application in newsrooms without the need for technical training, participated in this research. The results show the usefulness of the tool to automate mechanical processes, rewrite texts, analyse data and even serve as a content idea creator. On the other hand, journalists have also perceived significant risks such as inaccuracy of AI as well as lack of "˜empathy´.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Agarwal, Udit (2018). "How Reuters is transforming journalism with artificial intelligence". Analytics insight, 11 March.

Aguilar, Ricardo (2023). "´Pausen inmediatamente el entrenamiento´: Musk y más personalidades, preocupados por GPT-4". Xataka, 29 marzo.

Ali, Waleed; Hassoun, Mohamed (2019). "Artificial intelligence and automated journalism: Contemporary challenges and new opportunities". International journal of media, journalism and mass communications, v. 5, n. 1, pp. 40-49.

Berkland, Mara K. (2017). "Experience Sampling Method". In: Allen, Mike. The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage. ISBN: 978 1 483381435

Buj, Anna (2023). "Italia bloquea el uso de ChatGpt por no respetar la ley de protección de datos". La vanguardia, 31 marzo.

Calvo-Rubio, Luis-Mauricio; Ufarte-Ruiz, Marí­a-José (2020). "Percepción de docentes universitarios, estudiantes, responsables de innovación y periodistas sobre el uso de inteligencia artificial en periodismo". Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 1, e290109.

Canavilhas, Joí£o (2022). "Artificial intelligence and journalism: Current situation and expectations in the Portuguese sports media". Journalism and media, v. 3, n. 3, pp. 510-520.

Castells, Manuel (2001). La galaxia internet. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés. ISBN: 978 84 01386060

Chalmers, Dominic; MacKenzie, Niall G.; Carter, Sara (2021). "Artificial intelligence and entrepreneurship: Implications for venture creation in the fourth industrial revolution". Entrerpreneurship theory and practice, v. 45, n. 5, pp. 1028-1053.

Cohen, Sarah; Hamilton, James T.; Turner, Fred (2011). "Computational journalism". Communications of the ACM, v. 54, n. 10, pp. 66-71.

Danzon-Chambaud, Samuel (2021). "A systematic review of automated journalism scholarship: Guidelines and suggestions for future research". Open research Europe, v. 1, n. 4.

De-Lara, Alicia; Garcí­a-Avilés, José-Alberto; Arias-Robles, Félix (2022). "Implantación de la inteligencia artificial en los medios españoles: análisis de las percepciones de los profesionales". Textual & visual media, v. 1, n. 15, pp. 1-17.

De-Lima-Santos, Mathias-Felipe; Ceron, Wilson (2022). "Artificial intelligence in news media: Current perceptions and future outlook". Journalism and media, v. 3, n. 1, pp. 13-26.

Evens, Tom; Raats, Tim; Von-Rimscha, M. Bjí¸rn (2017). "Business model innovation in news media organisations - 2018 special issue of the European Media Management Association (EMMA)". Journal of media business studies, v. 14, n. 3, pp. 167-172.

Fernández, Yúbal (2023a). "Bing Chat con ChatGPT: qué es, cómo funciona y qué puedes hacer con el chat con inteligencia artificial del buscador". Xataka, 24 abril.

Fernández, Yúbal (2023b). "ChatGPT Plus: qué es, diferencias con ChatGPT normal y cuánto cuesta esta inteligencia artificial". Xataka, 1 junio.

Garcí­a-Avilés, José A. (2019). "El impacto de la inteligencia artificial en el periodismo". Máster en innovación y periodismo UMH blog, 2 noviembre.

Garcí­a-Orosa, Berta; Canavilhas, Joí£o; Vázquez-Herrero, Jorge (2023). "Algorithms and communication: A systematized literature review". Comunicar, v. 31, n. 74, pp. 9-21.

Garcí­a-Orosa, Berta; Pérez-Seijo, Sara; Vizoso, Ángel (2022). Emerging practices in the age of automated digital journalism. New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978 1 032128511

Gómez-Diago, Gloria (2022). "Perspectivas para abordar la inteligencia artificial en la enseñanza de periodismo". Revista latina de comunicación social, v. 80, pp. 29-46.

Goní§alves, Adriana; Melo, Paulo-Victor (2022). "Artificial intelligence and journalism: An aproach to the Portuguese context". Fonseca, journal of communication, n. 25, pp. 23-24.

Google (2023). Bard.

Harper, Tauel (2017). "The big data public and its problems: Big data and the structural transformation of the public sphere". New media & society, v. 19, n. 9, pp. 1424-1439.

Hazard-Owen, Laura (2023). "Google is changing up search. What does that mean for news publishers?". NiemanLab, 11 May.

Hermann, Erik (2022). "Artificial intelligence and mass personalization of communication content: An ethical and literacy perspective". New media & society, v. 24, n. 5, pp. 1258-1277.

Israel, Maria-Joseph; Amer, Ahmed (2022). "Rethinking data infrastructure and its ethical implications in the face of automated digital content generation". AI and ethics, v. 3, pp. 427-439.

Karlsen, Joakim; Stavelin, Eirik (2013). "Computational journalism in Norwegian newsrooms". Journalism practice, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 34-48.

Krausová, Alzbeta; Moravec, Václav (2022). "Disappearing authorship: Ethical protection of ai-generated news from the perspective of copyright and other laws". Journal of intellectual property, information technology and e-commerce law, v. 13, n. 2.

Laboratorio de Periodismo (2018). Inteligencia artificial: para qué puede usarse en periodismo y qué están haciendo los medios. Laboratorio de periodismo Fundación Luca de Tena, 6 noviembre.

Larsson, Stefan; Heintz, Fredrik (2020). "Transparency in artificial intelligence". Internet policy review, v. 9, n. 2.

Lin, Bibo; Lewis, Seth C. (2022). "The one thing journalistic AI just might do for democracy". Digital Journalism, v. 10, n. 10, pp. 1627-1649.

López-Garcí­a, Xosé; Vizoso, Ángel (2021). "Periodismo de alta tecnologí­a: signo de los tiempos digitales del tercer milenio". Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 3, e300301.

Mahatody, Thomas; Sagar, Mouldi; Kolski, Christophe (2010). "State of the art on the cognitive walkthrough method, its variants and evolutions". International journal of human-computer interaction, v. 26, n. 8, pp. 741-785.

Manfredi-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Ufarte-Ruiz, Marí­a-José (2020). "Inteligencia artificial y periodismo: una herramienta contra la desinformación". Revista Cidob d´afers internacionals, n. 124, pp. 49-72.

Marconi, Francesco (2020). New York: Newsmakers. Artificial intelligence and the future of journalism. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN: 978 0 231191371

Márquez, Javier (2023). "GPT-4: así­ es la IA más avanzada de OpenAI, cómo funciona y todas las novedades". Xataka, 17 mayo.

Martí­nez-Martí­nez, Inmaculada-José; Aguado-Terrón, Juan-Miguel; Sánchez-Cobarro, Paloma-del-Henar (2022). "Smart advertising: innovación y disrupción tecnológica asociadas a la IA en el ecosistema publicitario". Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 80, pp. 69-90.

Micó, Josep-Lluí­s; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu; Garcí­a-Orosa, Berta (2022). "Platforms in journalism 4.0: The impact of the fourth industrial revolution on the news industry". En: Vázquez-Herrero, Jorge; Silva-Rodrí­guez, Alba; Negreira-Rey, Marí­a-Cruz; Toural-Bran, Carlos; López-Garcí­a, Xosé. Total Journalism. Studies in Big Data, v. 97. Cham: Springer Nature, pp. 241-253.

Mishra, Shrutika; Tripathi, Asha R. (2021). "AI business model: An integrative business approach". Journal of innovation and entrepreneurship, v. 10, n. 18.

Mooshammer, Sandra (2022). "There are (almost) no robots in journalism. An attempt at a differentiated classification and terminolofy of automation in journalism on the base of the concept of distributed and gradualised action". Publizistik, v. 67, pp. 487-515.

Moran, Rachel E.; Shaikh, Sonia-Jawaid (2022). "Robots in the news and newsrooms: Unpacking meta-journalistic discourse on the use of artificial intelligence in journalism". Digital journalism, v. 10, n. 10, pp. 1756-1774.

Noain-Sánchez, Amaya (2022). "Addressing the impact of artificial intelligence on journalism: the perception of experts, journalists and academics". Communication & society, v. 35, n. 3, pp. 105-21.

OpenAI (2023a). DALL-E 2.

OpenAI (2023b) "Introducing ChatGPT". OpenAI Blog.

Otero-González, Iván (2022). "Los cimientos de la inteligencia artificial en el sistema productivo de contenidos periodí­sticos automatizados". Redmarka. Revista de marketing aplicado, v. 26, n. 1, pp. 15-35.

Page, Matthew J.; Moher, David; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Boutron, Isabelle; Hoffmann, Tammy C.; Mulrow, Cynthia D.; Shamseer, Larissa; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M.; Akl, Eli A.; Brennan, Sue E.; Chou, Roger; Glanville, Julie et al. (2021). "PRISMA 2020 explanation and elaboration: updated guidance and exemplars for reporting systematic reviews". BMJ, v. 372, n. 160.

Parratt-Fernández, Sonia; Mayoral-Sánchez, Javier; Mera-Fernández, Montse (2021). "The application of artificial intelligence to journalism: An analysis of academic production". Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 3, e300317.

Pavlik, John V. (2023). "Collaborating with ChatGPT: Considering the implications of generative artificial intelligence for journalism and media education". Journalism and mass communication educator, v. 78, n. 1, pp. 84-93.

Peña-Fernández, Simón; Meso-Ayerdi, Koldobika; Larrondo-Ureta, Ainara (2023). "Without journalists, there is no journalism: the social dimension of generative artificial intelligence in the media". Profesional de la información, v. 32, n. 2, e320227.

Porlezza, Colin; Ferri, Giulia (2022). "The missing piece: Ethics and the ontological boundaries of automated journalism". #ISOJ, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 71-98.

Prasad, Ramjee; Choudhary, Purva (2021). "State-of-art of artificial intelligence". Journal of mobile multimedia, v. 17, n. 1-3, pp. 427-454.

Prego, Carlos (2023). "Elon Musk lanza X.AI, su propia compañí­a de IA con un objetivo claro: competir con OpenAI". Xataka, 15 abril.

Ross, Philip; Maynard, Kasia (2021). "Towards a 4th industrial revolution". Intelligent buildings international, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 159-161.

Salazar-Garcí­a, Idoia-Ana (2018). "Los robots y la inteligencia artificial. Nuevos retos del periodismo". Doxa comunicación, n. 27, pp. 295-315.

Samuel, Jim; Kasyap, Rajiv; Yana, Samuel; Pelaez, Alexander (2022). "Adaptative cognitive fit: Artificial intelligence augmented management of information facets and rerpesentations". International journal of information management, v. 65, 102505.

Sanahuja-Sanahuja, Rosana; López-Rabadán, Pablo (2022). "í‰tica y uso periodí­stico de la inteligencia artificial. Los medios públicos y las plataformas de verificación como precursores de la rendición de cuentas en España". Estudios sobre el mensaje periodí­stico, v. 28, n. 4, pp. 959-970.

Sánchez-Garcí­a, Pilar; Merayo-Álvarez, Noemí­; Calvo-Barbero, Carla; Diez-Gracia, Alba (2023). "Spanish technological development of artificial intelligence applied to journalism: companies and tools for documentation, production and distribution of information". Profesional de la información, v. 32, n. 2, e320208.

Tejedor, Santiago; Vila, Pere (2021). "Exo journalism: A Conceptual approach to a hybrid formula between journalism and artificial intelligence". Journalism and media, v. 2, n. 4, pp. 830-840.

Túñez-López, Miguel; Fieiras-Ceide, César; Vaz-Álvarez, Martí­n (2021). "Impacto de la inteligencia artificial en el periodismo: transformaciones en la empresa, los productos, los contenidos y el perfil profesional". Communication & society, v. 34, n. 1, pp. 177-193.

Túñez-López, Miguel; Toural-Bran, Carlos; Valdiviezo-Abad, Cesibel (2019). "Automation, bots and algorithms in newsmaking. Impact and quality of artificial journalism". Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 74, pp. 1411-1433.

Ufarte-Ruiz, Marí­a-José; Calvo-Rubio, Luis-Mauricio; Murcia-Verdú, Francisco-José (2021). "Los desafí­os éticos del periodismo en la era de la inteligencia artificial". Estudios sobre el mensaje periodí­stico, v. 27, n. 2, pp. 673-684.

Ufarte-Ruiz, Marí­a-José; Fieiras-Ceide, César; Túñez-López, Miguel (2020). "La enseñanza-aprendizaje del periodismo automatizado en instituciones públicas: estudios, propuestas de viabilidad y perspectivas de impacto de la IA". Anàlisi, n. 62, pp. 131-146.

Ufarte-Ruiz, Marí­a-José; Murcia-Verdú, Francisco-José; Túñez-López, José-Miguel (2023). "Use of artificial intelligence in synthetic media: first newsrooms without journalists". Profesional de la información, v. 32, n. 2.

Vállez, Mari; Codina, Lluí­s (2018). "Periodismo computacional: evolución, casos y herramientas". Profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 4, pp. 759-768.

Van-Dijck, José; Poell, Thomas; De-Waal, Martjin (2018). The platform society. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978 0 190889777.

Ventura-Pocino, Patricia (2021). "Algorithms in the newsrooms: Challenges and recommendations for artificial intelligence with the ethical values of journalism". Catalan Press Council.

Yu, Yang; Huang, Kuo; Jones, Bob (2020). "Artificial intelligence in media: Journalists´ perceptions and organizational talk". Communication, technologies et développement, v. 8.

Zelizer, Barbie (2019). "Why journalism is about more than digital technology". Digital journalism, v. 7, n. 3, pp. 343-350.



Cómo citar

Gutiérrez-Caneda, B., Vázquez-Herrero, J., & López-Garcí­a, X. . (2023). AI application in journalism: ChatGPT and the uses and risks of an emergent technology. Profesional De La información, 32(5).



Artificial Intelligence