Disability and employability in the audio-visual sector: the (dis)connection between corporate social sustainability goals and the employment experiences of people with disabilities




Palabras clave:

Disability, Employability, Labour inclusion, Social inclusion, Social sustainability, Sustainable development goals, SDGs, Non-financial reporting, Corporate social responsibility, CSR, Audio-visual market, Barriers to exclusion, Stigmatisation, Visibility, Focus groups, Atlas.ti


People with disabilities (PwD) have made significant progress in having their rights acknowledged, yet the ongoing presence of stigmas continues to hinder their full inclusion. The approach of the 2030 Agenda, as well as legislative developments focussed on improving the employment status of this group, have encouraged companies to express growing concern for this issue in their sustainability reports. However, such efforts have not resulted in a substantial increase in employment of PwD. The aim of this research is to gain knowledge regarding the dis(connection) between the corporate discourse of large Spanish audio-visual companies and the reality experienced by PwD employed in this sector. Using Atlas.ti software, a thematic relational analysis of two discourses has been carried out: firstly, the corporate narrative, which has been published in the sustainability reports of the three most prominent audio-visual groups in Spain; and secondly, the discourse regarding the experiences of three focus groups consisting of PwD employed in the audio-visual job market. The findings reveal that while these companies disseminate a positive view of diversity and inclusion, workers with disabilities continue to have a pessimistic outlook towards the situation. Moreover, companies are acutely interested in issues such as the commitment to inclusion and social equality, which they promote as part of their image. Furthermore, these companies include a variety of socially diverse factors, such as race, gender, age and/or general ability. On the contrary, the experiences related by the focus groups convey special concern for the role of different agents involved in the employment of PwD, such as companies, governments and associations, as well as apprehension regarding the policies and resources needed to achieve labour inclusion. Such discrepancies highlight the lack of cohesion between corporate policies of the audio-visual sector and the professional reality experienced by PwD.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Atresmedia España (2022). Estado de información no financiera consolidado 2021, 23 de febrero. https://www.atresmediacorporacion.com/informe-anual/2021/pdf/Estado_de_Informacion_no_financiera_consolidado_2021.pdf

Barlovento (2023). Informe anual 2022: Análisis de la industria televisiva-audiovisual, enero. https://barloventocomunicacion.es/wp-content/uploads/2023/01/Informe-anual-2022_Barlovento-Comunicacion.pdf

Blattner, Charlotte E. (2021). “Right to work or refusal to work: Disability rights at a crossroads”. Disability and society, v. 36, n. 9, pp. 1375-1398. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1788511

Braun, Virginia; Clarke, Victoria (2006). “Using thematic analysis in psychology”. Qualitative research in psychology, v. 3, n. 2, pp. 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Campbell, Fiona-Kumari (2009). Contours of ableism: The production of disability and abledness. London: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN: 978 0 230 57928 6 https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230245181

Carmichael, Fiona; Clarke, Harriet (2022). “Why work? Disability, family care and employment”. Disability and society, v. 37, n. 5, pp. 765-786. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1848802

Caron, Laura (2021). “Disability, employment and wages: Evidence from Indonesia”. International journal of manpower, v. 42, n. 5, pp. 866-888. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJM-01-2020-0022

Corbin, Juliet M.; Strauss, Anselm (1990). “Grounded theory research: Procedures, canons and evaluative criteria”. Qualitative sociology, v. 13, n. 1, pp. 3-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00988593

Csillag, Sára; Gyori, Zsuzsanna; Matolay, Réka (2018). “Two worlds apart? Corporate social responsibility and employment of people with disabilities. In: Tench, Ralph; Jones, Brian; Sun, William (eds.). The critical state of corporate social responsibility in Europe, pp. 57-81. Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited. ISBN: 978 1 78756 150 2 https://doi.org/10.1108/S2043-905920180000012003

Darcy, Simon; Taylor, Tracy; Green, Jenny (2016). “‘But I can do the job’: Examining disability employment practice through human rights complaint cases”. Disability and society, v. 31, n. 9, pp. 1242-1274. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2016.1256807

Dollinger, Mollie; Ajjawi, Rola; Finneran, Rachel; O’Shea, Sarah (2023). “Conceptualising responsibility and hostility within work-integrated learning placements for students with disabilities”. Disability and society, online first. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2023.2209276

Ellinger, Alexander E.; Naidoo, Jeffrey; Ellinger, Andrea D.; Filips, Karli; Herrin, Gregory D. (2020). “Applying blue ocean strategy to hire and assimilate workers with disabilities into distribution centers”. Business horizons, v. 63, n. 3, pp. 339-350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2020.01.009

España (2013). “Real decreto legislativo 1/2013, de 29 de noviembre, por el que se aprueba el Texto Refundido de la Ley General de derechos de las personas con discapacidad y de su inclusión social”. BOE, n. 289, 3 diciembre, pp. 95635-95673. https://www.boe.es/eli/es/rdlg/2013/11/29/1/con

España (2017). “Real decreto-ley 18/2017, de 24 de noviembre, por el que se modifican el Código de Comercio, el texto refundido de la Ley de Sociedades de Capital aprobado por el Real decreto legislativo 1/2010, de 2 de julio, y la Ley 22/2015, de 20 de julio, de Auditoría de Cuentas, en materia de información no financiera y diversidad”. BOE, n. 287, 25 noviembre, pp. 114344-114352. https://www.boe.es/eli/es/rdl/2017/11/24/18

European Union (2014). “Directive 2014/95/EU, of 22 October 2014, amending Directive 2013/34/EU as regards disclosure of non-financial and diversity information by certain large undertakings and groups”. Official journal of the European Union, n. 330, 15/11/2014. Reference: Document 32014L0095. http://data.europa.eu/eli/dir/2014/95/oj

Friese, Susanne (2021). Atlas.ti 9 Windows. User manual. Berlin: Atlas.ti Scientific Software Development GmbH, 23 July. https://doc.atlasti.com/ManualWin.v9/ATLAS.ti_ManualWin.v9.pdf

Gallardo-Vázquez, Dolores; Hourneaux-Junior, Flavio; Da-Silva-Gabriel, Marcelo-Luiz-Dias; Valdez-Juárez, Luis-Enrique (2021). “On earth as it is in heaven: Proxy measurements to assess sustainable development goals at the company level through CSR indicators”. Sustainability, v. 13, n. 2, 914. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13020914

Hammad, Tehmina (2018). “Education of people with disabilities: A capability-context framework of culture”. Disability and society, v. 33, n. 5, pp. 685-704. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2018.1455577

Helena, Taubner; Magnus, Tideman; Carin, Staland-Nyman (2023). “People with intellectual disability and employment sustainability: A qualitative interview study”. Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, v. 36, n. 1, pp. 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.13036

Huang, Yi (2023). “Reflections on the discriminatory effect of employment quota with referring to the experience of disabled people in China”. Disability and society, online first. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2023.2205996

Jansen, Joke; Snippen, Nicole; Koning, Pierre; Boot, Cécile; Van-Ooijen, Raun; Brouwer, Sandra (2023). “Discrepancies between workers with disabilities and their supervisors in reported work accommodations and associations with return to work”. BMC public health, v. 23, n. 1, 525. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-023-15038-7

Jochmaring, Jan; York, Jana (2023). “Inclusion opportunities of work 4.0? Employment realities of people with disabilities in Germany”. Scandinavian journal of disability research, v. 25, n. 1, pp. 29-44. https://doi.org/10.16993/sjdr.896

Khan, Nadeem; Korac-Kakabadse, Nada; Skouloudis, Antonis; Dimopoulos, Andreas (2019). “Diversity in the workplace: An overview of disability employment disclosures among UK firms”. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, v. 26, n. 1, pp. 170-185. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1669

Kitzinger, Jenny (1994). “The methodology of focus groups: The importance of interaction between research participants”. Sociology of health and illness, v. 16, n. 1, pp. 103-121. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.ep11347023

Kolotouchkina, Olga; Llorente-Barroso, Carmen; Manfredi-Sánchez, Juan-Luis (2022). “Smart cities, the digital divide, and people with disabilities”. Cities, v. 123, 103613. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cities.2022.103613

Köseoglu, Mehmet-Ali; Hon, Alice; Kalargyrou, Valentini; Okumus, Fevzi (2021). “Hiring people with disabilities as a CSR strategy in the tourism industry”. Tourism analysis, v. 26, n. 1, pp. 41-56. https://doi.org/10.3727/108354220X15758302602547

Kulkarni, Mukta; Rodrigues, Caren (2014). “Engagement with disability: Analysis of annual reports of Indian organizations”. The international journal of human resource management, v. 25, n. 11, pp. 1547-1547. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2013.837088

Kwan, Chi-Kin (2020). “Socially responsible human resource practices to improve the employability of people with disabilities”. Corporate social responsibility and environmental management, v. 27, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1002/csr.1768

Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Albarico, Mikhaela; Mortaji, Neda; Karon, Leora (2018). “A systematic review of the benefits of hiring people with disabilities”. Journal of occupational rehabilitation, v. 28, n. 4, pp. 634-655. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-018-9756-z

Llorente-Barroso, Carmen; Anzanello-Carrascoza, João-Luis; Ferreira, Ivone (2023). “Corporate commitment and the social inclusion of vulnerable adults: From corporate and institutional awareness to brand value and citizen engagement”. Icono14, v. 21, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v21i1.1982

Llorente-Barroso, Carmen; Mena-Moreno, Jesús; Ferreira, Ivone; García-García, Francisco (2022). “El compromiso social de las grandes empresas con la discapacidad en España y Portugal: Análisis de las iniciativas de empresas del IBEX35 y del PSI20”. Prisma social, n. 36, pp. 4-36. https://revistaprismasocial.es/article/view/4567

López-Cepeda, Ismael; Mañas-Viniegra, Luis; Vivar-Zurita, Hipólito (2021). “Fundamental rights of people with disabilities reflected in the social discourse of the main disability organisations in Spain”. Janus.net, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 93-111. https://doi.org/10.26619/1647-7251.DT21.7

Lundberg, Camilla-Stub (2023). “Striving to abolish a deficit approach to disability: Frames applied by frontline workers and activist entrepreneurs in employment”. Disability and society, online first. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2022.2160927

Mediaset España (2022). Informe de sostenibilidad 2021. Estado de información no financiera 2021, 25 febrero. https://files.mediaset.es/file/10002/2022/02/25/INFORME_DE_SOSTENIBILIDAD_2021_MEDIASET_ESPANA_b9b8.pdf

Mellifont, Damian; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Bulkeley, Kim (2023). “The employment of people with lived experience of disability in Australian disability services”. Social policy and administration, v. 57, n. 5, pp. 642-655. https://doi.org/10.1111/spol.12898

Molyneux, Cara (2023). “Why employer inflexibility matters for the recruitment, retention and progression of disabled workers”. Disability and society, v. 38, n. 4, pp. 723-728. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2023.2168180

Moore, Jeffrey R.; Maxey, Everon C.; Waite, Alina M.; Wendover, Joseph D. (2020). “Inclusive organizations: Developmental reciprocity through authentic leader-employee relationships”. Journal of management development, v. 39, n. 9/10, pp. 1029-1039. https://doi.org/10.1108/JMD-05-2019-0211

Morgan, David L. (1996). “Focus groups”. Annual review of sociology, v. 22, pp. 129-152. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.22.1.129

Muhr, Thomas (1991). “Atlas.ti: A prototype for the support of text interpretation”. Qualitative sociology, v. 14, n. 4, pp. 349-371. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00989645

Mutua, Kagendo; Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Williamson, Amy (2023). “Interview skills associated with employment recommendations for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities”. Journal of intellectual & developmental disability, v. 48, n. 1, pp. 71-76. https://doi.org/10.3109/13668250.2022.2078799

Nelissen, Philippe T. J. H.; Hulsheger, Ute R.; Van-Ruitenbeek, Gemma M. C.; Zijlstra, Fred R. H. (2016). “How and when stereotypes relate to inclusive behavior toward people with disabilities”. International journal of human resource management, v. 27, n. 14, pp. 1610-1625. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2015.1072105

Nowell, Lorelli S.; Norris, Jill M.; White, Deborah E.; Moules, Nancy J. (2017). “Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria”. International journal of qualitative methods, v. 16, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/1609406917733847

Olsen, Jason (2022). “Employers: Influencing disabled people’s employment through responses to reasonable adjustments”. Disability and society, online first. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2022.2099251

Olwig, Mette-Fog (2021). “Sustainability superheroes? For-profit narratives of ‘doing good’ in the era of the SDGs”. World development, v. 142, 105427. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2021.105427

Onwuegbuzie, Anthoy J.; Dickinson, Wendy B.; Leech, Nancy L.; Zoran, Annmarie G. (2009). “Qualitative framework for collecting and analyzing data in focus group research”. International journal of qualitative methods, v. 3, n. 8. https://doi.org/10.1177/160940690900800301

Pérez-Conesa, Francisco J.; Romeo, Marina; Yepes-Baldó, Montserrat (2020). “Labour inclusion of people with disabilities in Spain: The effect of policies and human resource management systems”. The international journal of human resource management, v. 31, n. 6, pp. 785-804. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585192.2017.1380681

Pinilla-Roncancio, Mónica; Gallardo, Mauricio (2023). “Inequality in labour market opportunities for people with disabilities: Evidence for six Latin American countries”. Global social policy, v. 23, n. 1, pp. 67-91. https://doi.org/10.1177/14680181211070201

Powell, Richard A.; Single, Helen M. (1996). “Focus groups”. International journal for quality in health care, v. 8, n. 5, pp. 499-504. https://doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/8.5.499

Randall, Kristina N.; Bernard, Gerald; Durah, Lois (2023). “Association between employment status and quality of life for individuals with intellectual or developmental disability”. Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities: Jarid, v. 36, n. 2, pp. 270-280. https://doi.org/10.1111/jar.13053

Revillard, Anne (2023). “The disability employment quota, between social policy and antidiscrimination”. Global social policy, v. 23, n. 1, pp. 92-108. https://doi.org/10.1177/14680181221138558

RTVE (2022a). Memoria 2021 servicio público y cumplimiento del mandato-marco, 30 junio. https://www.rtve.es/contenidos/corporacion/MEMORIA_SERVICIO_PUBLICO_2021.pdf

RTVE (2022b). Memoria de RTVE 2021 responsabilidad y sostenibilidad, 30 de junio. https://www.rtve.es/contenidos/corporacion/RTVE_Informe_de_Progreso_Pacto%20Mundial_2021.pdf

Rustad, Marit; Kassah, Kwesi A. (2021). “Learning disability and work inclusion: On the experiences, aspirations and empowerment of sheltered employment workers in Norway”. Disability and society, v. 36, n. 3, pp. 399-419. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1749564

Sánchez-Valle, María; Viñarás-Abad, Mónica; Vázquez-Barrio, Tamara (2022). “Las barreras invisibles para las personas con discapacidad en el sector de la comunicación”. Prisma social, n. 36, pp. 166-194. https://revistaprismasocial.es/article/view/4576

Sapir, Adi; Banai, Adi (2023). “Balancing attendance and disclosure: Identity work of students with invisible disabilities”. Disability and society, online first. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2023.2181765

Segovia-San-Juan, Ana-Isabel; Saavedra, Irene; Fernández-de-Tejada, Victoria (2017). “Analyzing disability in socially responsible companies”. Social indicators research, v. 130, n. 2, pp. 617-645. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-015-1198-9

Sideri, Labrini (2021). “Leveraging CSR for sustainability: Assessing performance implications of sustainability reporting in a national business system”. Sustainability, v. 13, n. 11, 5987. https://doi.org/10.3390/su13115987

Skarstad, Kjersti; Stein, Michael-Ashley (2018). “Mainstreaming disability in the United Nations treaty bodies”. Journal of human rights, v. 17, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754835.2017.1286238

Smithson, Janet (2000). “Using and analyzing focus groups: Limitations and possibilities”. International journal of social research methodology, v. 3, n. 2, pp. 103-119. https://doi.org/10.1080/136455700405172

Statista (2022). Cuota de pantalla de los principales grupos empresariales de comunicación en España en 2022. Statista.


Su, Han; Wong, Jasin; Kudla, Angelika; Park, Mirang; Trierweiler, Robert; Capraro, Pamela; Crown, Deborah; Ezeife, Nnaemezie; Tomazin, Stephanie; Munsell, Elizabeth G. S.; Heinemann, Allen W. (2022). “Disability phenotypes and job accommodations utilization among people with physical disability”. Journal of occupational rehabilitation, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 352-361. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10926-022-10078-z

Sudirman, Faturachman-Alputra; Upe, Ambo; Herman, La-Ode; Susilawaty, Fera-Tri (2021). “Corporate social responsibility (CSR) contribution to achieve sustainable development goals (SDGs) in Southeast Sulawesi”. In: Proceedings of the 11th Annual international conference on industrial engineering and operations management, pp. 3408-3416. IEOM Society International. http://www.ieomsociety.org/singapore2021/papers/616.pdf

Tonkiss, Fran (2018). “Focus groups”. In: Seale, Clive (ed.). Researching society and culture, pp. 237-255. Los Angeles: Sage Publications. ISBN: 978 1 473947160

Tsatsou, Panayiota (2021). “Is digital inclusion fighting disability stigma? Opportunities, barriers, and recommendations”. Disability and society, v. 36, n. 5, pp. 702-729. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2020.1749563

United Nations (2015). “Resolution A/RES/70/1 adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015”. Transforming our world: The 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, n. 70/1, 21 October. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/generalassembly/docs/globalcompact/A_RES_70_1_E.pdf

Vázquez-Barrio, Tamara; Sánchez-Valle, María; Viñarás-Abad, Mónica (2021). “Percepción de las personas con discapacidad sobre su representación en los medios de comunicación”. Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 1, e300106. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.ene.06

Vedeler, Janikke-Solstad (2023). “How is disability addressed in a job interview?”. Disability and society, online first. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2022.2162860

Viñarás-Abad, Mónica-Victoria; Llorente-Barroso, Carmen; Mañas-Viniegra, Luis; Jiménez-Gómez, Isidro (2023). “Diversidad y cultura inclusiva en las organizaciones: La opinión de las personas con discapacidad en el sector de la comunicación audiovisual”. Doxa comunicación, n. 37, pp. 213-243. https://doi.org/10.31921/doxacom.n37a1917

Viñarás-Abad, Mónica; Vázquez-Barrio, Tamara; Sánchez-Valle, María (2021). “Situación de las personas con discapacidad en el sector de la Comunicación en España: Aspectos laborales, profesionales y académicos”. Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 2, e300202. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.02

Westoby, Peter; Shevellar, Lynda (2019). “The possibility of cooperatives: A vital contributor in creating meaningful work for people with disabilities”. Disability and society, v. 34, n. 9-10, pp. 1613-1636. https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2019.1594699

Williams, Belinda-Rachael (2017). “Disability in the Australian workplace: Corporate governance or CSR issue?”. Equality, diversity and inclusion, v. 36, n. 3, pp. 206-221. https://doi.org/10.1108/EDI-12-2016-0111

Williams, Michael; Moser, Tami (2019). “The art of coding and thematic exploration in qualitative research”. International management review, v. 15, n. 1, pp. 45-55. http://www.imrjournal.org/uploads/1/4/2/8/14286482/imr-v15n1art4.pdf



Cómo citar

Llorente-Barroso, C., Mañas-Viniegra, L., Sierra-Sánchez, J., & Garcí­a-Garcí­a, F. (2023). Disability and employability in the audio-visual sector: the (dis)connection between corporate social sustainability goals and the employment experiences of people with disabilities. Profesional De La información Information Professional, 32(6). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2023.nov.04



Artí­culos de investigación / Research articles