Increasing political polarization with disinformation: A comparative analysis of the European quality press

Autores/as

  • Laura Teruel-Rodriguez Universidad de Málaga

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2023.nov.12

Palabras clave:

Political polarization, Issue polarization, Journalism, Digital media, Spain, France, Quality press, Disinformation, Information disorders, Social media, Social networks

Resumen

Political polarization and information disorders are not new phenomena on the media agenda, but they have acquired considerable prominence in the wake of international events such as the election of Donald Trump. The present article seeks to help in understanding the interrelation of these concepts –disinformation and polarization– in the European quality press in recent years. Six newspapers (El Mundo, El País, Le Figaro, Le Monde, The Daily Telegraph and The Guardian) from three countries were selected on the basis of their quality, audience and representative character of their editorial lines between 2017 and late 2022, and a qualitative and quantitative frame analysis (n = 286) was carried out. Having observed all the definitions of polarization in the press, it was seen that party political alignment has the greatest presence in the international scenario, coming before the division of public opinion. In the sample, Spain has a prominent position, claiming to be a polarized pluralist country, as opposed to United Kingdom, which closely observes what happens in the United States, or France, where these phenomena have achieved less penetration. The conclusion is that political polarization is presented as a chronic problem caused by political actors who are not going to cease doing so, as opposed to information disorders, which are produced by certain specific international actors, such as Vladimir Putin, Donald Trump, and Jair Bolsonaro, who take advantage of communication flows on social media and the latter’s lack of regulation. This article suggests that the way to resolve or at least alleviate the problem is by defending quality information and public media, emphasizing citizen responsibility in the face of social media.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Allcott, Hunt; Gentzkow, Matthew (2017). “Social media and fake news in the 2016 election”. Journal of economic perspectives, v. 31, n. 2, pp. 211-236. https://doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211

Au, Cheuk-Hang; Ho, Kevin K. W.; Chiu, Dickson K. W. (2022). “The role of online misinformation and fake news in ideological polarization: Barriers, catalysts, and implications”. Information systems frontiers, v. 24, n. 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10796-021-10133-9

Azzimonti, Marina; Fernandes, Marcos (2023). “Social media networks, fake news, and polarization”. European journal of political economy, v. 76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpoleco.2022.102256

Ballesteros-Herencia, Carlos A.; Gómez-García, Salvador (2020). “Batalla de frames en la campaña electoral de abril de 2019. Engagement y promoción de mensajes de los partidos políticos en Facebook”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 6. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.nov.29

Barberá, Pablo (2015) How social media reduces mass political polarization. Evidence from Germany, Spain, and the US. Working paper, New York University, pp. 1-46. https://tinyurl.com/yc3xrx6u

Bastos, Marco T.; Mercea, Dan (2019). “The Brexit botnet and user-generated hyperpartisan news”. Social science computer review, v. 37, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439317734157

Blumler, Jay G.; Gurevitch, Michael (1995). The crisis of public communication. Psychology Press. ISBN: 978 0415108522

Brüggemann, Michael; Engesser, Sven; Büchel, Florin; Humprecht, Edda; Castro, Laia (2014). “Hallin and Mancini revisited: Four empirical types of Western media systems”. Journal of communication, v. 64, n. 6. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12127

Capilla, Pablo (2019). “¿De qué hablamos cuando hablamos de posverdad? Análisis del término en siete diarios de calidad”. El Profesional de la Información, v. 28, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.may.09

Comellas, Josep M.; Torcal, Mariano (2023). “Ideological identity, issue-based ideology and bipolar affective polarization in multiparty systems: The cases of Argentina, Chile, Italy, Portugal and Spain”. Electoral studies, v. 83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electstud.2023.102615

Corrales, Javier (2005). “In search of a theory of polarization: Lessons form Venezuela, 1999-2005”. Revista europea de estudios Latinoamericanos y del Caribe, n. 79, pp. 105-118. https://www.jstor.org/stable/25676187

Deirdre, Kevin (2003). Europe in the media: A comparison of reporting, representation, and rhetoric in national media systems in Europe. Routledge. ISBN: 978 1138993594

Del-Vicario, Michela; Quattrociocchi, Walter; Scala, Antonio; Zollo, Fabiana (2019). “Polarization and fake news: Early warning of potential misinformation targets”. ACM transactions on the Web, v. 13, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1145/3316809

Duclos, Jean-Yves; Taptué, André-Marie (2015). “Polarization”. In: Handbook of income distribution, v. 2. Elsevier. pp. 301-358. ISBN: 978 0 444594303 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-444-59428-0.00006-0

Eberl, Jakob-Moritz; Meltzer, Christine E.; Heidenreich, Tobias; Herrero, Beatrice; Theorin, Nora; Lind, Fabienne; Berganza, Rosa; Boomgaarden, Hajo G.; Schemer, Christian; Strömbäck, Jesper (2018). “The European media discourse on immigration and its effects: a literature review”. Annals of the International Communication Association, v. 42, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.1080/23808985.2018.1497452

Entman, Robert M. (1993) “Framing: Toward clarification of a fractured paradigm”. Journal of communication, v. 43, n. 4, p. 51-58. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x

Erlich, Aaron; Garner, Calvin (2023). “Is pro-Kremlin disinformation effective? Evidence from Ukraine”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 28, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1177/19401612211045221

European Commission (2018). A multi-dimensional approach to disinformation: Report of the independent high level group on fake news and online disinformation. European Commission, High Level Expert Group on Fake News and Disinformation. https://op.europa.eu/es/publication-detail/-/publication/6ef4df8b-4cea-11e8-be1d-01aa75ed71a1

European Commission (2021) Standard Eurobarometer 94. https://europa.eu/eurobarometer/surveys/detail/2355

Fernandes, Carla-Montuori; De-Oliveira, Luiz-Ademir; De-Campos, Mariane-Motta; Gomes, Vinícius-Borges (2020). “Political polarization in the Brazilian election campaign for the presidency of Brazil in 2018: An analysis of the social network Instagram”. International journal of social science studies, v. 8, n. 4. https://doi.org/10.11114/ijsss.v8i4.4837

Fiorina, Morris P.; Abrams, Samuel A.; Pope, Jeremy C. (2008). “Polarization in the American public: Misconceptions and misreadings”. The journal of politics, v. 70, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002238160808050X

Fürsich, Elfriede (2009). “In defense of textual analysis: Restoring a challenged method for journalism and media studies”. Journalism studies, v. 10, n. 2, pp. 238-252. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700802374050

Gigliarano, Chiara; Mosler, Karl (2009). “Constructing indices of multivariate polarization”. The journal of economic inequality, v. 7, n. 4. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10888-008-9096-x

Hallin, Daniel C.; Mancini, Paolo (2004). Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978 0511790867 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511790867

Hallin, Daniel C; Mancini, Paolo (2012). “Comparing media systems” between Eastern and Western Europe”. In: Gross, Peter; Jakubowicz, Karol (eds.). Media transformations in the post-communist world: Eastern Europe’s tortured path to change. Lexington Books, pp. 15-32. ISBN: 978 0739174944

Hetherington, Marc J. (2001). “Resurgent mass partisanship: The role of elite polarization”. American political science review, v. 95, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055401003045

Humanes, María-Luisa (2014). “Exposición selectiva y partidismo de las audiencias en España. El consumo de información política durante las campañas electorales de 2008 y 2011”. Palabra clave, v. 17, n. 3. https://palabraclave.unisabana.edu.co/index.php/palabraclave/article/view/3799

Igartua, Juan-José; Humanes, María-Luisa (2004). “Imágenes de Latinoamérica en la prensa española. Una aproximación empírica desde la Teoría del Encuadre”. Communication & society, v. 17, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.17.36337

Igartua, Juan-José; Muñiz, Carlos; Cheng, Lifen (2005). “La inmigración en la prensa española. Aportaciones empíricas y metodológicas desde la teoría del encuadre noticioso”. Migraciones, v. 17. http://diarium.usal.es/jigartua/files/2012/07/Igartua-et-al-Migraciones-2005.pdf

Iyengar, Shanto; Hahn, Kyu S. (2009). “Red media, blue media: Evidence of ideological selectivity in media use”. Journal of communication, v. 59, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.01402.x

Keller, Franziska B.; Schoch, David; Stier, Sebastian; Yang, JungHwan (2020). “Political astroturfing on Twitter: How to coordinate a disinformation campaign”. Political communication, v. 37, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2019.1661888

Kerr, John; Panagopoulos, Costas; Van-Der-Linden, Sander (2021). “Political polarization on Covid-19 pandemic response in the United States”. Personality and individual differences, v. 179. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2021.110892

Lacy, Stephen; Rosenstiel, Tom (2015). Defining and measuring quality journalism. Rutgers School of Communication and Information. https://www.issuelab.org/resources/31212/31212.pdf

Ladd, Jonathan M. (2011). Why Americans hate the media and how it matters. Princeton University Press. ISBN: 978 0691147864

León, Bienvenido; Martínez-Costa, María-Pilar; Salaverría, Ramón; López-Goñi, Ignacio (2022). “Health and science-related disinformation on Covid-19: A content analysis of hoaxes identified by fact-checkers in Spain”. Plos one, v. 17, n. 4. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0265995

Levendusky, Matthew; Malhotra, Neil (2016). “Does media coverage of partisan polarization affect political attitudes?” Political communication, v. 33, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2015.1038455

Liotti, Jorge (2014). “The complex relationship between the media and the political system in Argentina: From co-option to polarization”. In: Guerrero, Manuel-Alejandro; Márquez-Ramírez, Mireya (eds.). Media systems and communication policies in Latin America. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 100-121. ISBN: 978 1349488476 https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137409058_6

López-Rabadán, Pablo (2010). “Nuevas vías para el estudio del framing periodístico. La noción de estrategia de encuadre”. Estudios sobre el mensaje periodístico, v. 16. https://revistas.ucm.es/index.php/ESMP/article/view/ESMP1010110235A

Masip, Pere; Suau, Jaume; Ruiz-Caballero, Carlos (2020). “Percepciones sobre medios de comunicación y desinformación: ideología y polarización en el sistema mediático español”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 5. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2020.sep.27

Matthes, Jörg; Kohring, Matthias (2008). “The content analysis of media frames: Toward improving reliability and validity”. Journal of communication, v. 58, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2008.00384.x

Maurer, Peter (2019). “In the grip of politics? How political journalists in France and Germany perceive political influence on their work”. Journalism, v. 20, n. 9. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884917707139

Mayoral, Javier; Parratt, Sonia; Morata, Monserrat (2019). “Desinformación, manipulación y credibilidad periodísticas: una perspectiva histórica”. Historia y comunicación social, v. 24, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.5209/hics.66267

McCarty, Nolan; Poole, Keith T.; Rosenthal, Howard (2016) Polarized America: The dance of ideology and unequal riches. MIT Press. ISBN: 978 0262633611

Mejias, Ulises A.; Vokuev, Nikolai E. (2017). “Disinformation and the media: the case of Russia and Ukraine”. Media, culture & society, v. 39, n. 7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443716686672

Newman, Nic; Fletcher, Richard; Robertson, Craig T.; Eddy, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2022). Digital News Report. Reuters Institute. University of Oxford. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/es/digital-news-report/2022

Norris, Pippa (2009). “Comparative political communications: Common frameworks or Babelian confusion?”. Government and ppposition, v. 44, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1477-7053.2009.01290.x

Osmundsen, Mathias; Bor, Alexander; Vahlstrup, Peter Bjerregaard; Bechmann, Anja; Petersen, Michael-Bang (2021). “Partisan polarization is the primary psychological motivation behind political fake news sharing on Twitter”. American political science review, v. 115, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0003055421000290

Palau-Sampio, Dolors; Carratalá, Adolfo (2022). “Injecting disinformation into public space: pseudo-media and reality-altering narratives”. Profesional de la información, v. 31, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2022.may.12

Peña-Fernández, Simón; Larrondo-Ureta, Ainara; Morales-i-Gras, Jordi (2023). “Feminism, gender identity and polarization in TikTok and Twitter. [Feminismo, identidad de género y polarización en TikTok y Twitter]”. Comunicar, v. 31, n. 75, pp. 45-60. https://doi.org/10.3916/C75-2023-04

Pérez-Escoda, Ana; Boulos, Sonia; Establés, María-José; García-Carretero, Lucía (2023). “Polarization in media discourses on europeanization in Spain”. Politics and governance, v. 11, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.17645/pag.v11i2.6419

Permanyer, Iñaki (2012). “The conceptualization and measurement of social polarization”. The journal of economic inequality, v. 10, n. 1, pp. 45-74. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10888-010-9143-2

Robles, José-Manuel; Guevara, Juan-Antonio; Casas-Mas, Belén; Gómez, Daniel (2022). “When negativity is the fuel. Bots and Political Polarization in the COVID-19 debate. [Cuando la negatividad es el combustible. Bots y polarización política en el debate sobre el COVID-19]”. Comunicar, 71, pp. 63-75. https://doi.org/10.3916/C71-2022-05

Rodríguez, Leopoldo; Smallman, Shawn (2016). “Political polarization and Nisman’s Death: Competing conspiracy theories in Argentina”. Journal of international & global studies. https://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/is_fac/16

Rodríguez-Cano, César-Augusto (2017) “Los usuarios en su laberinto: burbujas de filtros, cámaras de eco y mediación algorítmica en la opinión pública en línea”. Virtualis: revista de cultura digital, v. 8, n 16. http://ilitia.cua.uam.mx:8080/jspui/handle/123456789/369

Sádaba, Teresa (2008). Framing: el encuadre de las noticias. El binomio terrorismo-medios. Buenos Aires: La Crujía.

Shu, Kai; Sliva, Amy; Wang, Suhang; Tang, Jiliang; Liu, Huan (2017). “Fake news detection on social media: A data mining perspective”. ACM SIGKDD explorations newsletter, v. 19, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1145/3137597.3137600

Sides, John; Hopkins, Daniel J. (eds.) (2015). Political polarization in American politics. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. ISBN: 978 1501306273

Tandoc, Edson C.; Jenkins, Joy; Craft, Stephanie (2019). “Fake news as a critical incident in journalism”. Journalism practice, v. 13, n. 6, pp. 673-689. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2018.1562958

Teruel-Rodríguez, Laura (2016). “El impacto de la crisis política y económica sobre la polarización de los medios españoles”. Historia y comunicación social, v. 21, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_HICS.2016.v21.n1.52692

Tucker, Joshua A.; Guess, Andrew; Barbera, Pablo; Vaccari, Cristian; Siegel, Alexandra; Sanovich, Sergey; Stukal, Denis; Nyhan, Brendan (2018). “Social media, political polarization, and political disinformation: A review of the scientific literature”. SSRN, March 19. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3144139

Van-Antwerpen, Natasha; Turnbull, Deborah; Searston, Rachel A. (2022). “Perspectives from journalism professionals on the application and benefits of constructive reporting for addressing misinformation”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 28, n. 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/19401612211072782

Villaplana-Jiménez, F. Ramón (2022). “El cóctel de la polarización: los ingredientes de una España agitada por los partidos políticos”. La razón histórica. Revista hispanoamericana de historia de las ideas, v. 55, pp. 148-167. https://www.revistalarazonhistorica.com/55-8/

Wang, Patrick; Angarita, Rafael; Renna, Ilaria (2018). “Is this the era of misinformation yet: Combining social bots and fake news to deceive the masses”. In: Companion proceedings of the The web conference 2018. https://doi.org/10.1145/3184558.3191610

Wardle, Claire (2020). Understanding information disorder: Essential guides. First Draft. https://firstdraftnews.org/long-form-article/understanding-information-disorder

Webster, Steven W.; Abramowitz, Alan I. (2017). “The ideological foundations of affective polarization in the U.S. electorate”. American politics research, v. 45, n. 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/1532673X17703132

Zimmermann, Fabian; Kohring, Matthias (2020). “Mistrust, disinforming news, and vote choice: A panel survey on the origins and consequences of believing disinformation in the 2017 German parliamentary election”. Political communication, v. 37, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2019.1686095

Publicado

2023-11-30

Cómo citar

Teruel-Rodriguez, L. (2023). Increasing political polarization with disinformation: A comparative analysis of the European quality press. Profesional De La información Information Professional, 32(6). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2023.nov.12

Número

Sección

Artí­culos de investigación / Research articles