Political polarization and emotion rhetoric in the US presidential transition: A comparative study of Trump and Biden on Twitter and the post-election impact on the public




Palabras clave:

Politicization, Political communication, Polarization, Rhetoric, Elections, USA, Donald Trump, Joe Biden, Twitter, Emotions, Strategies, Democracy, Post-election impact, Citizens, Audiences


The pictures of the US Capitol attack, on January 6, 2021, represent a before and after in a country marked by the culture of political polarization. Following a presidential campaign based on misinformation and accusations of electoral fraud by Republican candidate Donald Trump, the level of maximum polarization causes a climate of social rupture. Faced with this, the Democratic candidate and winner of the elections, Joe Biden, projects a discourse of institutional stability and legality as a strategy before public opinion. Two years later, the abrupt division of the US electorate is evident, with a significant percentage of Republican voters questioning the legitimacy of the electoral process. The objective of this research is to find out the strategies of political polarization deployed by Donald Trump and Joe Biden on Twitter in the 2020-2021 presidential transition period, as well as the public’s response. Based on a general sample of 1,060 tweets, a comparative content analysis methodology with a triple approach (quantitative-qualitative-discursive) is applied, based on the study of themes, emotions, and the ability to go viral of the messages of both political leaders. The results confirm a Trump’s speech defined by polarization, misinformation and the attack on the democratic system, relegating information from his presidential administration in the last months of his term to the background. On the contrary, Biden avoids confrontation and reinforces his legitimacy as president-elect, by announcing management measures of the future government. The engagement value of the social audience on Twitter is also added, with a position of support for the winner of the elections.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aalberg, Toril; Strömback, Jesper; De-Vreese, Claes H. (2012). “The framing of politics as strategy and game: A review of concepts, operationalizations and key findings”. Journalism, v. 13, n. 2, pp. 162-178. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1464884911427799

Abramowitz, Alan; McCoy, Jennifer (2019). “United States: racial resentment, negative partisanship, and polarization in Trump’s America”. The annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, v. 68, n. 11, pp. 137-156. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716218811309

Ahmed, Hazhar-Ramadhan; Amir, Shamalia (2021) “Speech act analysis of the Joseph R. Biden, Jr.’s inaugural address on 20th of January 2021 as the 46th President of the USA”. Electronic research journal of social sciences and humanities, v. 3, n. 1, pp. 43-55. https://ssrn.com/abstract=3780457

Alexandre, Ilo; Jai-Sung-Yoo, Joseph; Murthy, Dhiraj (2022). “Make tweets great again: who are opinion leaders, and what did they tweet about Donald Trump?”. Social science computer review, v. 40, n. 6, pp. 1456-1477. https://doi.org/10.1177/08944393211008859

Alonso-Muñoz, Laura; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2020). “Populism against Europe in social media: the eurosceptic discourse on Twitter in Spain, Italy, France, and United Kingdom during the campaign of the 2019 European Parliament election”. Frontiers in communication, v. 5. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00054

Alonso-Muñoz, Laura; Miquel-Segarra, Susana; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2016). “Un potencial comunicativo desaprovechado. Twitter como mecanismo generador de diálogo en campaña electoral”. Obra digital, n. 11, pp. 39-59. https://doi.org/10.25029/od.2016.100.11

Anderson, Carl W. (2021). “Fake news is not a virus: on platforms and their effects”. Communication theory, v. 31, n. 1, pp. 42-61. https://doi.org/10.1093/ct/qtaa008

Anderson, Mónica (2021). “Americans divided on whether Trump should be permanently banned from social media”. Pew Research Center, May 5. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2021/05/05/americans-divided-on-whether-trump-should-be-permanently-banned-from-social-media

Balz, Dan; Clement, Scott; Guskin, Emily (2021). “Biden wins wide approval for handling of transition, but persistent GOP skepticism on issues will cloud the opening of his presidency, Post-ABC poll finds”. The Washington Post, 17 January. https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/poll-biden-trump-republicans/2021/01/16/5e41c9ba-575b-11eb-a08b-f1381ef3d207_story.html

Barrios-Rubio, Andrés; Gutiérrez-García, María (2022). “Comunicación mediática y social en el entorno de crisis, polarización e inconformismo colombiano”. Profesional de la información, v. 31, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2022.may.20

Battistoni, Alyssa (2021). “Will Joe Biden be the first climate President?”. Dissent, v. 68, n. 1, pp. 34-39. https://doi.org/10.1353/dss.2021.0004

Baym, Geoffrey D. (2010). From Cronkite to Colbert: the evolution of broadcast news. Boulder: Paradigm. ISBN: 978 0 19 994 584 9

Behrent, Michael C. (2021). “Les manoeuvres législatives de Joe Biden”. Esprit, n. 480, pp. 26-30. https://esprit.presse.fr/article/michael-c-behrent/les-manoeuvres-legislatives-de-joe-biden-43683

Benaissa-Pedriza, Samia (2021). “Sources, channels and strategies of disinformation in the 2020 US election: Social networks, traditional media and political candidates”. Journalism and media, v. 2, n. 4, pp. 605-624. https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2040036

Bennett, W. Lance; Livingston, Steven (2018). “The disinformation order: disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions”. European journal of communication, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 122-139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323118760317

Blassnig, Sina; Ernst, Nicole; Engesser, Sven; Esser, Frank (2019). “Populism and social media popularity. How populist communication benefits political leaders on Facebook and Twitter”. In: Taras, David; Davis, Richard. Power shift? Political leadership and social media. New York: Routledge, pp. 97-111. ISBN: 978 1 13 860 985 3

Block, Elena; Negrine, Ralph (2017). “The populist communication style: toward a critical framework”. International journal of communication, v. 11, pp. 178-197. https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/5820

Bonikowski, Bart (2019). “Trump’s populism: the mobilization of nationalist cleavages and the future of US democracy”. In: Weyland, Kurt; Madrid, Raúl L. (eds.). When democracy Trumps populism: European and Latin American lessons for the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 110-131. ISBN: 978 1 10 872 882 9 https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108692793

Boussaid, Youness (2022). “Metaphor-based analysis of Joe Biden’s and George Washington’s inaugural speeches”. International journal of English linguistics, v. 12, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.5539/ijel.v12n3p1

Calvo, Ernesto; Ventura, Tiago; Aruguete, Natalia; Waisbord, Silvio (2023). “Winning! Election returns and engagement in social media”. PLoS one, v. 18, n. 3. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0281475

Campos-Domínguez, Eva (2017). “Twitter y la comunicación política”. El profesional de la información, v. 26, n. 5, pp. 785-785. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2017.sep.01

Carlson, Matt; Robinson, Sue; Lewis, Seth C. (2021). News after Trump: journalism’s crisis of relevance in a changed media culture. Oxford: Oxford scholarship. ISBN: 978 0 19 755 034 2 https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780197550342.001.0001

Carment, David; Belo, Daniel (2021). The next chapter in the America first doctrine: the Joe Biden era. Calgary: Canadian Global Affairs Institute. ISBN: 978 1 77 397 180 3 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/349962726_The_Next_Chapter_in_’America_First’_Doctrine_The_Joe_Biden_Era

Cartwright, Edward; Stepanova, Anna; Xue, Lian (2019). “Impulse balance and framing effects in threshold public good games”. Journal of public economic theory, v. 21, n. 5, pp. 903-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpet.12359

Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2018). “Research on political information and social media: Key points and challenges for the future”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 5, pp. 964-974. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.sep.01

Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2020). “Influencia de los medios de comunicación en la conversación política en Twitter. Actividad, popularidad y autoridad en el debate digital en España”. Icono14, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 33-57. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v18i1.1527

Chadwick, Andrew (2017). The hybrid media system: politics and power. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978 0 19 069 673 3

Conway, Lucian G.; Zubrod, Alivia (2022). “Are U. S. presidents becoming less rhetorically complex? Evaluating the integrative complexity of Joe Biden and Donald Trump in historical context”. Journal of language and social psychology, v. 41, n. 5, pp. 613-625. https://doi.org/10.1177/0261927X221081126

Cossarini, Paolo (2019). “Populismo, acción política y emociones. Líneas de intersección”. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez, v. 53, pp. 79-95. https://doi.org/10.30827/acfs.v53i0.7803

Crilley, Rhys; Gillespie, Marie (2019). “What to do about social media? Politics, populism and journalism”. Journalism, v. 20, n. 1, pp. 173-176. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884918807344

De-la-Torre, Carlos (2018). “Leyendo a Donald Trump desde América Latina”. Revista SAAP: Sociedad Argentina de Análisis Político, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 179-194. https://revista.saap.org.ar/contenido/revista-saap-v12-n1/SAAP_12_1-De_La_Torre.pdf

Delli-Carpini, Michael X. (2000). “In search of the informed citizen: what Americans know about politics and why it matters”. The communication review, v. 4, n. 1, pp. 129-164. https://doi.org/10.1080/10714420009359466

Derki, Noureddine A. (2022). “Critical analysis of persuasive strategies used in political discourse: a case study of Donald Trump and Joe Biden”. International journal of English language, education and literature studies, v. 1, n. 1, pp. 44-54. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7776321

Díez-Gracia, Alba; Sánchez-García, Pilar; Martín-Román, Javier (2023). “Polarización y discurso emocional de la agenda política en Twitter: desintermediación y engagement en campaña electoral”. Icono14, v. 21, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v21i1.1922

Domínguez-García, Ricardo; Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén; Pérez-Curiel, Concha (2023). “Biden’s counter-speech to Trump’s conspiratorial policy in the US elections. Between illegitimacy and the polarization of the digital public sphere”. In: López-López, Paulo-Carlos; Barredo, Daniel; Torres-Toukoumidis, Ángel; De-Santis, Andrea; Avilés, Óscar. Communication and applied technologies. Smart innovation, systems and technologies. Singapur: Springer, pp. 279-288. ISBN: 978 981 196 346 9


Dutta-Bergman, Mohan J. (2004). “Complementarity in consumption of news types across traditional and new media”. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, v. 48, n. 1, pp. 41-60. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15506878jobem4801_3

Fajardo-Trigueros, Clara; Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén (2020). “La acción de la UE en España ante la ‘infodemia’ de desinformación por el Covid-19”. Revista de estilos de aprendizaje, v. 13, n. 26, pp. 19-32. http://revistaestilosdeaprendizaje.com/article/view/2153

Fiorina, Morri P.; Abrams, Samuel J. (2008). “Political polarization in the American public”. Annual review of political science, v. 11, pp. 563-588. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.11.053106.153836

Flowerdew, John; Richardson, John E. (2017). The Routledge handbook of critical discourse studies. London: Routledge. ISBN: 978 1 31 573 934 2 https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315739342

Fuchs, Christian (2017). “Donald Trump: A critical theory perspective on authoritarian capitalism”. TripleC: communication, capitalism & critique, v. 15, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.31269/triplec.v15i1.835

Fuchs, Christian (2021). “How did Donald Trump incite a coup attempt?”. TripleC: communication, capitalism & critique, v. 19, n. 1, pp. 246-251. https://doi.org/10.31269/triplec.v19i1.1239

Fuentes-Rodríguez, Catalina (2016). Estrategias argumentativas y discurso político. Madrid: Arco Libros. ISBN: 978 84 7635 949 5

Gadde, Vijaya; Beykpour, Kayvon (2020). “Additional steps we’re taking ahead of the 2020 US election”. Twitter company blog, 9 October. https://blog.twitter.com/en_us/topics/company/2020/2020-election-changes.html

Gallardo-Paúls, Beatriz (2018). Tiempo de hipérboles. Inestabilidad e interferencias en el discurso político. Valencia: Tirant Humanidades. ISBN: 978 84 1750 836 4

García-Gómez, Alberto (2021). Análisis del relato de la campaña presidencial de Joe Biden y Donald Trump. Trabajo fin de máster, Universidad Camilo José Cela. https://iddigitalschool.com/analisis-del-relato-de-la-campana-presidencial-de-joe-biden-y-donald-trump

Gerbaudo, Paolo (2018). “Social media and populism: an elective affinity?”. Media, culture & society, v. 40, n. 5, pp. 745-753. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443718772192

Goldberg, Linn; Speizer, Louise (2021). “Wear a mask. The life you save may be your own”. Covid-19 pandemic: case studies, commentaries, and opinions, v. 2, n. 2, pp. 214-215.

Griebie, Anne-Marie; Immelman, Aubrey (2021). “The personality profile and leadership style of U. S. President Joe Biden”. In: Proceedings of the 44th Annual scientific meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology. https://digitalcommons.csbsju.edu/psychology_pubs/132

Guo, Haochen (2021). “Public views of the fake news in the argument between media organization and Donald Trump”. The frontiers of society, science and technology, v. 3, n. 3, pp. 107-109. https://doi.org/10.25236/FSST.2021.030319

Habermas, Jürgen (2006). “Political communication in media society: does democracy still enjoy an epistemic dimension? The impact of normative theory on empirical research”. Communication theory, v. 16, n. 4, pp. 411-426. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2006.00280.x

Humprecht, Edda; Esser, Frank; Van-Aelst, Peter (2020). “Resilience to online disinformation: a framework for cross-national comparative research”. The international journal of press/politics, v. 25, n. 3, pp. 493-516. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161219900126

Jaráiz-Gulías, Erika; López-López, Paulo-Carlos; Bastos-Boubeta, Miguel-Anxo (2020). “Economía, política social y Twitter: análisis de las emociones negativas en cuatro elecciones presidenciales latinoamericanas a través del LIWC”. RISTI. Revista ibérica de sistemas e tecnologias de informação, n. E26, pp. 270-282. http://www.risti.xyz/issues/ristie26.pdf

Jones, Jeffrey M. (2021). “Last Trump job approval 34%; average is record-low 41%”. Gallup, January 18. https://news.gallup.com/poll/328637/last-trump-job-approval-average-record-low.aspx

Jungherr, Andreas (2016). “Twitter use in election campaigns: a systematic literature review”. Journal of information technology & politics, v. 13, n. 1, pp. 72-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2015.1132401

Kaiser, Brittany (2020). “I blew the whistle on Cambridge Analytica - Four years later, Facebook still hasn’t learnt its lesson”. The independent, January 27. https://www.independent.co.uk/voices/us-election-trump-cambridge-analytica-facebook-fake-news-brexit-vote-leave-a9304421.html

Kovach, Bill; Rosenstiel, Tom (2007). The elements of journalism: what newspeople should know and the public should expect. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN: 978 0 80 413 678 5

Krippendorff, Klaus (2012). Content analysis: an introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks: Sage publications. ISBN: 978 1 41 298 315 0. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781071878781

Levitsky, Steven; Ziblatt, Daniel (2018). How democracies die. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN: 978 1 52 476 293 3

Lockwood, James; Mooney, Aidan (2018). “Computational thinking in secondary education: where does it fit? A systematic literary review”. International journal of computer science education in schools, v. 2, n. 1. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED581487

Mammone, Andrea (2009). “The eternal return? Faux populism and contemporarization of neo-Fascism across Britain, France and Italy”. Journal of contemporary European studies, v. 17, n. 2, pp. 171-192. https://doi.org/10.1080/14782800903108635

Manfredi-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Amado-Suárez, Adriana; Waisbord, Silvio (2021). “Presidential Twitter in the face of Covid-19: between populism and pop politics”. Comunicar, n. 66, pp. 83-94. https://doi.org/10.3916/C66-2021-07

Marques, Francisco-Paulo-Jamil; Ferracioli, Paulo; Comel, Naiza; Kniess, Andressa-Butture (2023). “Who is who in fact-checked conspiracy theories? Disseminators, sources, and the struggle for authority in polarized environments”. Journalism, Online first. https://doi.org/10.1177/14648849231165579

McGoey, Linsey (2012). “Strategic unknowns: towards a sociology of ignorance”. Economy and society, v. 41, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.1080/03085147.2011.637330

Méndez-Muros, Sandra (2019). “Neuropolítica y tecnología: el papel del periodismo como eje mediador en la producción de contenidos”. En: Altamirano-Benítez, Verónica; Marín-Dueñas, Pedro-Pablo; Dafonte-Gómez, Alberto. Nuevos paradigmas comunicativos. Madrid: Ediciones Pirámide, pp. 303-318. ISBN: 978 84 368 4252 4

Monteiro, Ramón; Vaca-Narvaja; Hernán (2022). “La polarización en las redes sociales: actores, burbujas e intensidades”. Temas y problemas de comunicación, v. 20, pp. 52-62. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7447088

Moret-Soler, Diana; Alonso-Muñoz, Laura; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2022). “La negatividad digital como estrategia de campaña en las elecciones de la Comunidad de Madrid de 2021 en Twitter”. Revista prisma social, n. 39, pp. 48-73. https://revistaprismasocial.es/article/view/4860

Mounk, Yascha (2018). The people vs. democracy: why our freedom is in danger and how to save it. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978 0 67 497 682 5

Mudde, Cas (2016). “Europe’s populist surge: a long time in the making”. Foreign affairs, v. 95, n. 6, pp. 25-30. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/europe/2016-10-17/europes-populist-surge

Neudert, Lisa-Maria M.; Marchal, Nahema (2019). “Polarisation and the use of technology in political campaigns and communication”. European Parliamentary Research Service Scientific Foresight Unit. https://doi.org/10.2861/167110

Neville-Shepard, Ryan (2019). “Post-presumption argumentation and the post-truth world: on the conspiracy rhetoric of Donald Trump”. Argumentation and advocacy, v. 55, n. 3, pp. 75-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/10511431.2019.1603027

Newman, Nic; Fletcher, Richard; Robertson, Craig T.; Eddy, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2022). Digital news report 2022. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. https://www.digitalnewsreport.org/2022

Nye, Joseph S. (2017). “Will the liberal order survive? The history of an idea”. Foreign affairs, v. 96, n. 1, pp. 10-16. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/united-states/2016-12-12/will-liberal-order-survive

Osnos, Evan (2020). Joe Biden: the life, the run, and what matters now. New York: Scribner. ISBN: 978 1 98 217 402 6

Ott, Brian L. (2017). “The age of Twitter: Donald J. Trump and the politics of debasement”. Critical studies in media communication, v. 34, n. 1, pp. 59-68. https://doi.org/10.1080/15295036.2016.1266686

Pastor-Gómez, María-Luisa (2020). “Victoria pírrica de Joe Biden en EE. UU. Algunas consideraciones”. bie3: Boletín IEEE, n. 20, pp. 8-20. https://www.ieee.es/Galerias/fichero/docs_informativos/2020/DIEEEI19_2020LUIPAS_eleccionesUSA.pdf

Pellegrini, Silvia; Múgica, María-Constanza (2006). “Valor agregado periodístico (VAP): la calidad periodística como factor productivo en un entorno medial complejo”. Palabra clave, v. 9, n. 1. https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/649/64900101.pdf

Pennycook, Gordon; Rand, David G. (2018). “Lazy, not biased: susceptibility to partisan fake news is better explained by lack of reasoning than by motivated reasoning”. Cognition, v. 188, pp. 39-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2018.06.011

Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Domínguez-García, Ricardo (2021). “Discurso político contra la democracia: populismo, sesgo y falacia de Trump tras las elecciones de Estados Unidos (3-N)”. Cultura, lenguaje y representación, v. 26, pp. 7-28. https://doi.org/10.6035/clr.5807

Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Limón-Naharro, Pilar (2019). “Political influencers. A study of Donald Trump’s personal brand on Twitter and its impact on the media and users”. Communication & society, v. 32, n. 1, pp. 57-76. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.32.37815

Pérez-Curiel, Concha; Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén; Domínguez-García, Ricardo (2022). “Facing conspiracies: Biden’s counter-speech to Trumpist messages in the framework of the 2020 US elections”. Societies, v. 12, n. 134. https://doi.org/10.3390/soc12050134

Pew Research Center (2020a). “Sharp divisions on vote counts, as Biden gets high marks for his post-election conduct”. Pew Research Center, November 20. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/2020/11/20/sharp-divisions-on-vote-counts-as-biden-gets-high-marks-for-his-post-election-conduct

Pew Research Center (2020b). Wave 78, November 2020, American trends panel. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2020/11/PP_2020.11.19_Post-Election-Views_TOPLINE.pdf

Pew Research Center (2022). Wave 116 politics, October 2022, American trends panel. https://www.pewresearch.org/politics/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/2022/10/PP_2022.10.31_election-turmoil_TOPLINE.pdf

Ramírez-Nárdiz, Alfredo (2020). “Aproximación al pensamiento político de Donald Trump: ¿es el presidente de Estados Unidos populista?”. Revista española de ciencia política, n. 52, pp. 59-83. https://doi.org/10.21308/recp.52.03

Rapoport, David C. (2021). “The Capitol attack and the 5th terrorism wave”. Terrorism and political violence, v. 33, n. 5, pp. 912-916. https://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2021.1932338

Rivera-Otero, José-Manuel; Lagares-Diez, Nieves; Pereira-López, María; Jaráiz-Gulías, Erika (2021). “Relación entre diversos usos de las redes sociales, emociones y voto en España”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 79, pp. 73-98. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2021-1518

Ross, Andrew S.; Caldwell, David (2020). “Going negative’: an appraisal analysis of the rhetoric of Donald Trump on Twitter”. Language & communication, n. 70, pp. 13-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.langcom.2019.09.003

Roth, Yoel (2018). “Automation and the use of multiple accounts”. Twitter developer blog, February 21. https://blog.twitter.com/developer/en_us/topics/tips/2018/automation-and-the-use-of-multiple-accounts

Runciman, David (2018). How democracy ends. New York: Basic Books. ISBN: 978 1 78 125 975 7

Ruthardt, Fabián (2021). “Joe Biden: a bearer of hope”. The economists’ voice, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 101-108. https://doi.org/10.1515/ev-2021-0001

Samuels, David J.; Shugart, Matthew S. (2010). Presidents, parties, and prime ministers. How the separation of powers affects party organization and behavior. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978 0 51 178 088 2


Sánchez-Ramos, Aida; Martínez-Acebal, Luis-Yaim; García-Galera, María-del-Carmen (2022). “Twitter como herramienta para fomentar la participación. El caso de los gobiernos de España y Cuba”. Correspondencias & análisis, n. 15, pp. 9-31. https://doi.org/10.24265/cian.2022.n15.01

Sánchez-Vallejo, María-Antonia (2023). “Rupert Murdoch admite que comentaristas de la Fox respaldaron afirmaciones falsas sobre la victoria de Biden”. El País, 28 febrero. https://elpais.com/internacional/2023-02-28/rupert-murdoch-admite-que-comentaristas-de-la-fox-respaldaron-afirmaciones-falsas-sobre-la-victoria-de-biden.html

Sanz-Blasco, Rubén; Carro-de-Francisco, Cristina (2019). “Susceptibilidad cognitiva a las falsas informaciones”. Historia y comunicación social, v. 24, n. 2, pp. 521-531. https://doi.org/10.5209/hics.66296

Savoy, Jacques; Wehren, Marylène (2022). “Trump’s and Biden’s styles during the 2020 US presidential election”. Digital scholarship in the humanities, v. 37, n. 1, pp. 229-241. https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqab046

Schaeffer, Katherine (2022). “State of the Union 2022: how Americans view major national issues”. Pew Research Center, February 25. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/02/25/state-of-the-union-2022-how-americans-view-major-national-issues

Schulte-Cloos, Julia; Leininger, Arndt (2022). “Electoral participation, political disaffection, and the rise of the populist radical right”. Party politics, v. 28, n. 3, pp. 431-443. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068820985186

Silverman, David (ed.) (2016). Qualitative research. London: Sage. ISBN: 978 1 52 971 297 1

Sintes-Olivella, Marçal; Franch, Pere; Yeste-Piquer, Elena; Zilles, Klaus (2021). “Europe abhors Donald Trump: the opinion on the 2020 U.S. presidential elections and their candidates in the European newspapers”. American behavioral scientist, v. 66, n. 1, pp. 61-85. https://doi.org/10.1177/00027642211005534

Siregar, Try-Mahendra (2021). “The critical discourse analysis on Joe Biden’s elected president speech”. Journal of applied studies in language, v. 5, n. 1, pp. 79-86, http://doi.org/10.31940/jasl.v5i1.2298

Smyrnaios, Nikis; Rebillard, Franck (2019). “How infomediation platforms took over the news: A longitudinal perspective”. The political economy of communication, v. 7, n. 1, pp. 30-50. https://www.polecom.org/index.php/polecom/article/view/103

Spence, Logan (2021). “Rhetorical denialism: the melancholic affect of conspiracy rhetoric and ideological (c)kynicism”. Southern communication journal, v. 86, n. 5, pp. 447-459. https://doi.org/10.1080/1041794X.2021.1972650

The Associated Press NORC Center for Public Affairs Research (2022). “Encuesta: 48% en EEUU cree que Trump debe ser acusado por su rol en el ataque al Capitolio”. Telemundo-44, 30 junio. https://www.telemundowashingtondc.com/noticias/eeuu/encuesta-casi-mitad-adultos-eeuu-cree-trump-debe-ser-acusado-por-ataque-al-capitolio/2134295

The Economist (2020). “Only a quarter of Republicans believe Donald Trump should concede”. The economist, 19 November. https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2020/11/19/only-a-quarter-of-republicans-believe-donald-trump-should-concede

Van-Aelst, Peter; Blumler, Jay G. (2022). Political communication in the time of coronavirus. New York: Routledge. ISBN: 978 0 36 776 185 1

Van-Dijk, Teun A. (2009). “Critical discourse studies. A sociocognitive approach”. Methods of critical discourse studies, v. 2, n. 1, pp. 62-86. https://discourses.org/wp-content/uploads/2022/07/Teun-A.-van-Dijk-2008-Critical-discourse-studies-a-sociocognitive-approach.pdf

Vizoso, Ángel; Vaz-Álvarez, Martín; López-García, Xosé (2021). “Fighting deepfakes: Media and internet giants’ converging and diverging strategies against hi-tech misinformation”. Media and communication, v. 9, n. 1, pp. 291-300. https://doi.org/10.17645/mac.v9i1.3494

Waisbord, Silvio (2018). “Truth is what happens to news: on journalism, fake news, and post-truth”. Journalism studies, v. 19, n. 13, pp. 1866-1878. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2018.1492881

Waisbord, Silvio; Amado, Adriana (2017). “Populist communication by digital means: presidential Twitter in Latin America information”. Communication & society, v. 20, n. 9, pp. 1330-1346. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118x.2017.1328521

Wanvik, Tarje I.; Haarstad, Håvard (2021). “Populism, instability, and rupture in sustainability transformations”. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, v. 111, n. 7, pp. 2096-2111. https://doi.org/10.1080/24694452.2020.1866486

Wodak, Ruth (2015). The politics of fear: what right-wing populist discourses mean. London: Sage publications. ISBN: 978 1 44 624 700 6 https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446270073

Woolley, Samuel C.; Howard, Philip N. (2017). Computational propaganda worldwide: executive summary. Oxford: Computational propaganda research project. http://comprop.oii.ox.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/sites/89/2017/06/Casestudies-ExecutiveSummary.pdf

Yeste-Piquer, Elena; Franch, Pere (2018). “Trump vs los medios. Tratamiento de la prensa desde la cuenta de Twitter del presidente de EUA”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 5, pp. 975-983. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.sep.02



Cómo citar

Domí­nguez-Garcí­a, R., Méndez-Muros, S., Pérez-Curiel, C., & Hinojosa-Becerra, M. (2023). Political polarization and emotion rhetoric in the US presidential transition: A comparative study of Trump and Biden on Twitter and the post-election impact on the public. Profesional De La información Information Professional, 32(6). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2023.nov.06



Artí­culos de investigación / Research articles