Feminism as a polarizing axis of the political conversation on Twitter: the case of #IreneMonteroDimision




Palabras clave:

Polarization, Gender, Misogyny, Hate speech, Social networks, Social media, Women, Politicians, Political polarization, Public image, Astroturfing, Feminism, Antifeminism, Bots, Hashtags, Twitter


The fragmentation of the Spanish party system has led to a growing political polarization, particularly evident on the Internet. The discursive strategies of political actors online, combined with the particularities of communication on social media platforms such as the disinhibition effect, echo chambers, and filter bubbles, are likely to promote a state of tension among digital citizens. This tension is particularly pronounced in gender issues, which have become key positions of political parties, with convergence of sexism in the community and a highly reactive misogynistic online culture that turns female politicians into easy targets. Starting from the hashtag #IreneMonteroDimision, which conveys a paradigmatic criticism movement against the Spanish Minister of Equality, an analysis of the social conversation on Twitter is developed to determine its intentionality, tone, and orientation, as well as the themes and users that generated the most tension. In this way, multimodal content and discourse analysis is applied to the 418 tweets with the greatest interaction and explicitly directed at the minister. The hypothesis is that the criticism of Irene Montero goes beyond the management of her Ministry to place her at the center of a power struggle in which political ideology, hate speech, and antifeminism converge. The study has shown that attacks on Montero extend to the Executive and the feminist movement; they are promoted by a mass of politicized and polarized profiles, with constant activism and a tendency towards contagious replication of messages. These practices, as well as the participation of artificial profiles, allow us to appreciate signs of astroturfing; behind this seemingly natural critical reaction, there are orchestrated movements of antifeminist and far-right profiles (gender trolling), but also of trans-exclusionary feminists opposed to legislation promoted by Montero.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Aladro, Eva; Requeijo, Paula (2020). “Discurso, estrategia e interacciones de Vox en su cuenta oficial de Instagram en las elecciones del 28-A. Derecha radical y redes sociales”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 77, pp. 203-229. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2020-1455

Allcott, Hunt; Gentzkow, Matthew (2017). “Social media and fake news in the 2016 election”. Journal of economic pespectives, v. 31, n. 2, pp. 211-236. https://doi.org/ 10.1257/jep.31.2.211

Arranz, Laura (2022). “El marco de la ‘ideología de género’ en el discurso de Vox”. Revista más poder local, v. 40, pp. 10-25. https://doi.org/10.1257.56151/maspoderlocal.107

Arroyo-Menéndez, Millán (2020). “Las causas del apoyo electoral a Vox en España”. Política y sociedad, v. 57, n. 3, pp. 693-717. https://doi.org/10.5209/poso.69206

Barberá, Pablo; Jost, John T.; Nagler, Jonathan; Tucker, Joshya A; Bonneau, Richard (2015). “Tweeting from left to right: Is online political communication more than an echo chamber?”. Psychological science, v. 26, pp. 1531-1542. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797615594620

Bellovary, Andrea K.; Young, Nathaniel A.; Goldenberg, Amit (2021). “Left-and right-leaning news organizations use negative emotional content and elicit user engagement similarly”. Affective science, v. 2, n. 4, pp. 391-396. https://doi.org/10.07/s42761-021-00046-w

Beltran, Javier; Gallego, Ana; Huidobro, Alba; Romero, Enrique; Padró, Lluís (2020). “Male and female politicians on Twitter: A machine learning approach”. European journal of political research, v. 60, n. 1, pp. 239-251. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6765.12392

Blanco-Alfonso, Ignacio; Rodríguez-Fernández, Leticia; Arce-García, Sergio (2022). “Polarización y discurso de odio con sesgo de género asociado a la política: análisis de las interacciones en Twitter”. Revista de comunicación, v. 21, n. 2, pp. 33-50. https://doi.org/10.26441/RC21.2-2022-A2

Bonet-Martí, Jordi (2020). “Análisis de las estrategias discursivas empleadas en la construcción de discurso antifeminista en redes sociales”. Psicoperspectivas. Individuo y sociedad, v. 19, n. 3, pp. 52-63. https://doi.org/10.5027/psicoperspectivas-Vol19-Issue3-fulltext-2040

Cardenal, Ana S.; Aguilar-Paredes, Carlos; Cristancho, Camilo; Majó-Vázquez, Silvia (2019). “Echo-chambers in online news consumption: Evidence from survey and navigation data in Spain”. European journal of communication, v. 34, n. 4, pp. 360-376. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323119844409

Cassese, Erin C.; Holman, Mirya R. (2019). “Playing the woman card: Ambivalent sexism in the 2016 U.S. Presidential race”. Political psychology, v. 40, n. 1, pp. 55-74. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12492

CIS (2009). Barómetro de abril 2009. Estudio nº 2798. https://www.cis.es/cis/opencm/ES/1_encuestas/estudios/ver.jsp?estudio=9340

CIS (2010). Barómetro de abril 2010. Estudio nº 2834. https://www.cis.es/cis/opencm/ES/2_bancodatos/estudios/ver.jsp?estudio=10362

CIS (2021). Barómetro de abril 2021. Estudio nº 3318. https://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/-Archivos/Marginales/3300_3319/3318/es3318mar.pdf

CIS (2022a). Barómetro de abril 2022. Estudio nº 3359. https://datos.cis.es/pdf/Es3359mar_A.pdf

CIS (2022b). Encuesta sobre cuestiones de actualidad. Estudio nº 3362. https://www.cis.es/cis/export/sites/default/-Archivos/Marginales/3360_3379/3362/es3362mar.pdf

Colleoni, Elanor; Rozza, Alessandro; Arvidsson, Adam (2014). “Echo chamber or public sphere? Predicting political orientation and measuring political homophily in Twitter using big data”. Journal of communication, v. 64, n. 2, pp. 317-332. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12084

Conroy, Meredith; Oliver, Sarah; Breckenridge-Jackson, Ian; Heldman, Caroline (2015). “From Ferraro to Palin: sexism in coverage of vice presidential candidates in old and new media”. Politics, groups, and identities, v. 3, n. 4, pp. 573-591. https://doi.org/10.1080/21565503.2015.1050412

Cuthbertson, Lana; Kearney, Alex; Dawson, Riley; Zawaduk, Ashia; Cuthbertson, Eve; Gordon-Tighe, Ann; Mathewson, Kory W. (2019). “Women, politics and Twitter: using machine learning to change the discourse”. AI for social good workshop at NeurIPS. https://doi.org/10.48550/arXiv.1911.11025

Dhrodia, Azmina (2018). “Unsocial media: a toxic place for women”. IPPR Progressive review, v. 24, n. 4, pp. 380-387. https://doi.org/10.1111/newe.12078

España (2007). “Ley Orgánica 3/2007, de 22 de marzo, para la igualdad efectiva de mujeres y hombres”. BOE, n. 71, de 23 de marzo de 2007, pp. 12611-12645. https://www.boe.es/buscar/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2007-6115

Esposito, Eleanora; Zollo, Sole A. (2021). “’How dare you call her a pig, I know several pigs who would be upset if they knew’. A multimodal critical discursive approach to online misogyny against UK MPs on YouTube”. Journal of language aggression and conflict, v. 9, n. 1, pp. 44-75. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlac.00053.esp

Fallarás, Cristina (2019). Ahora contamos nosotras. #Cuéntalo: una memoria colectiva de la violencia. Barcelona: Anagrama. ISBN: 978 84 339 1633 4

Fiorina, Morris P.; Abrams, Samuel J.; Pope, Jeremy C. (2006). Culture war? The myth of a polarization America. New York: Pearson Education Inc.

Fox, Jesse; Cruz, Carlos; Young-Lee, Ji (2015). “Perpetuating online sexism offline: Anonymity, interactivity, and the effects of sexist hashtags on social media”. Computers in human behavior, v. 53, pp. 436-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.024

Frenda, Simona; Ghanem, Bilal; Guzmán-Falcón, Estefanía; Montes-y-Gómez, Manuel; Villaseñor-Pineda, Luis (2018). “Automatic expansion of lexicons for multilingual misogyny detection”. I Proceedings of the sixth evaluation campaign of natural language processing and speech tools for italian (Evalita 2018). https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/302343999.pdf

García-Escribano, Juan-José; García-Palma, María-Belén; Manzanera-Román, Salvador (2021). “La polarización de la ciudadanía ante temas posicionales de la política española”. Revista más poder local, v. 45, pp. 57-73. https://www.maspoderlocal.com/index.php/mpl/article/view/ciudadania-polarizacion-temas-posicionales-mpl45

García-Mingo, Elisa; Díaz Fernández, Silvia; Tomás-Forte, Sergio (2022). “(Re)configurando el imaginario sobre la violencia sexual desde el antifeminismo: el trabajo ideológico de la manosfera española”. Política y sociedad, v. 59, n. 1, e80369. https://doi.org/10.5209/poso.80369

García-Orosa, Berta (2021). “Disinformation, social media, bots, and astroturfing: the fourth wave of digital democracy”. Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 6, e300603. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.nov.03

Garmendia, Amuitz; Lorenzo-Rodríguez, Javier; Riera, Pedro (2022). “Construyendo bloques: la promiscuidad política online en tiempos de polarización en España”. Revista española de investigaciones sociológicas, v. 178, pp. 61-82. https://doi.org/10.5477/cis/reis.178.61

Gidron, Noam; Adams, James; Horne, Will (2020). American affective polarization in comparative perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781108914123

Glomb, Theresa M.; Richman, Wendy L.; Hulin, Charles L.; Drasgow, Fritz; Schneider, Kimberly T.; Fitzgerald, Louise F. (1997). “Ambient sexual harassment: An integrated model of antecedents and consequences”. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, n. 71, v. 3, pp. 309-328. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.1997.2728

GMMP (2020). ¿Quién figura en las noticias? España. Informe regional. Proyecto Monitoreo Mundial de Medios. https://bit.ly/3cElotT

Guerrero-Solé, Frederic; Perales-García, Cristina (2021). “Bridging the gap: How gender influences Spanish politicians’ activity on Twitter”. Journalism and media, v. 2, pp. 469-483. https://doi.org/10.3390/journalmedia2030028

Guerrero-Vizuete, Esther (2018). “La conciliación entre vida laboral, personal y familiar una década después de la Ley orgánica 3/2007”. Revista general de derecho del trabajo y de la Seguridad Social, v. 51, pp. 283-304.

Haller, André; Holt, Kristoffer (2018). “Paradoxical populism: How Pegida relates to mainstream and alternative media”. Information, communication & society, v. 22, pp. 1665-1680. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1449882

Idoiaga, Nahiua; Berasategui, Naiara; Beloki, Nekane; Belasko, Maitane (2022). “#8M women’s strikes in Spain: following the unprecedented social mobilization through Twitter”. Journal of gender studies, v. 31, n. 5, pp. 639-653. https://doi.org/10.1080/09589236.2021.1881461

Jamieson, Kathleen-Hall; Cappella, Joseph N. (2008). Echo chamber: Rush Limbaugh and the conservative media establishment. Oxford: Oxford University press. ISBN: 978 0 195398601

KhosraviNik, Majid; Esposito, Eleonora (2018). “Online hate, digital discourse and critique: exploring digitally-mediated discursive practices of gender-based hostility”. Lodz papers in pragmatics, v. 14, n. 1, pp. 45-58. https://doi.org/10.1515/lpp-2018-0003

Kovic, Marco; Rauchfleisch, Adrian; Sele, Marc; Caspar, Christian (2018). “Digital astroturfing in politics: Definition, typology, and countermeasures”. Studies in communication sciences, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 69-85. https://doi.org/10.24434/j.scoms.2018.01.005

Lacalle, Charo; Martín-Jiménez, Virginia; Etura-Hernández, Dunia (2023). “El antifeminismo de la ultraderecha española en Twitter en torno al 8M”. Prisma social, n. 40, pp. 358-376. https://revistaprismasocial.es/article/view/4837

Lagarde, Marcela (2003). “La igualdad formal a la diversidad. Una perspectiva étnica latinoamericana”. Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez, v. 37, pp. 57-79.

Larrondo, Ainhara; Morales-i-Gras, Jordi; Orbegozo-Terradillos, Julen (2019). “Feminist hashtag activism in Spain: measuring the degree of politicisation of online discourse on #YoSíTeCreo, #HermanaYoSíTeCreo, #Cuéntalo y #NoEstásSola”. Communication and society, v. 32, n. 4, pp. 207-221. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.32.34734

López-García, Guillermo (2016). “New vs ‘old’ leaderships: The campaign of Spanish general elections 2015 on Twitter”. Communication and society, v. 29, n. 3, pp. 149-168. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.29.35829

Losada-Díaz, José-Carlos; Zamora-Medina, Rocío; Martínez-Martínez, Helena (2021). “El discurso del odio en Instagram durante las Elecciones Generales 2019 en España”. Revista mediterránea de comunicación, v. 12, n. 2, pp. 195-208. https://www.doi.org/10.14198/MEDCOM.19142

Mantilla, Karla (2013). “Gendertrolling: Misogyny adapts to new media”. Feminist studies, v. 39, n. 2. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23719068

Martínez-Rolán, Xabier; Piñeiro-Otero, Teresa (2020). Mulleres pontevedresas na Rede. Análise do discurso, micromachismos e discurso de odio en Twitter. Deputación de Pontevedra; Universidade de Vigo. https://bit.ly/3OZ6hJN

Mata, Teresa; Luque, Francisco-Javier; Ortega, Manuela (2010). La percepción de los ministros del Gobierno de España (1984-2009). Madrid: CIS. ISBN: 978 84 74764932

McGregor, Shannon; Mourão, Rachel (2016). “Talking politics on Twitter: Gender, elections, and social networks”. Social media and society, v. 2. https://doi.org/10.1177/20563051166642

Méndez-Lago, Mónica (2020). “Parties and party systems”. In: Muro, Diego; Lago, Ignacio (eds.). The Oxford handbook of Spanish politics. Oxford: Oxford University press, pp. 331-348. ISBN: 978 0 198826934 https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198826934.001.0001

Nagle, Angela (2017). Kill all normies: online culture wars from 4Chan and Tumblr to Trump and the alt-right. Zero Books. ISBN: 978 1 785355431

Nicholas, Lucy; Agius, Christine (2018). “#Notallmen, #Menenism, manospheres and unsafe spaces: Overt and subtle masculinism in anti-’PC’”. In: Nicholas, Lucy; Agius, Christine. The persistence of global masculinism. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 31-59. ISBN: 978 3 319 68360 7 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-68360-7_2

Núñez-Puente, Sonia; Fernández-Romero, Diana (2019). “Posverdad y victimización en Twitter ante el caso de La Manada: propuesta de un marco analítico a partir del testimonio ético”. Investigaciones feministas, v. 10, n. 2, pp. 385-398. https://doi.org/10.5209/infe.66501

Pariser, Eli (2011). The filter bubble: What the Internet is hiding from you. New York: Penguin Press. ISBN: 978 1 59420 300 8

Piñeiro-Otero, Teresa; Martínez-Rolán, Xabier (2020). “Understanding digital politics. Basics and actions”. Vivat academia, v. 152, pp. 19-48. https://doi.org/10.15178/va.2020.152.19-48

Piñeiro-Otero, Teresa; Martínez-Rolán, Xabier (2021). “Say it to my face: Analysing hate speech against women on Twitter”. Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 5, e300502. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.sep.02

Piñeiro-Otero, Teresa; Martínez-Rolán, Xabier (2023). “Feminismo de verificación contra la misoginia digital”. Periodismo, ciudadanía y política en el escenario digital. Sevilla: Dykinson. ISBN: 978 84 1170 539 4 (en edición).

Ramírez-Dueñas, José-María; Vinuesa-Tejero, María-Lourdes (2020). “Exposición selectiva y sus efectos en el comportamiento electoral de los ciudadanos: la influencia del consumo mediático en el voto en las elecciones generales españolas de 2015 y 2016”. Palabra clave, v. 23, n. 4, e2346. https://doi.org/10.5294/pacla.2020.23.4.6

Richardson-Self, Louise (2018). “Woman-hating: On misogyny, sexism, and hate speech”. Hypatia, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 256-272. https://doi.org/10.1111/hypa.12398

Robles, José-Manuel; Guevara, Juan-Antonio; Casas-Mas, Belén; Gómez, Daniel (2022). “Cuando la negatividad es el combustible. Bots y polarización política en el debate sobre el COVID-19”. Comunicar, v. 71, pp. 63-75. https://doi.org/10.3916/C71-2022-05

Ruiloba-Núñez, Juana-María; Valenzuela-Samaniego, Patricia (2021). “Discursos y significados en torno al género de ‘los nuevos partidos políticos’ en España (2008-2018)”. Multidisciplinary journal of gender studies, v. 10, n. 1, pp. 22-44. https://doi.org/10.17583/generos.2021.6737

Sánchez-Calero, María-Luisa; Vinuesa-Tejero, María-Lourdes; Abejón-Mendoza, Paloma (2013). “Las mujeres políticas en España y su proyección en los medios de comunicación”. Razón y palabra, n. 82. http://www.razonypalabra.org.mx/N/N82/V82/01_SanchezVinuesaAbejon_V82.pdf

Sessa, Maria-Giovanna (2020). Misogyny and misinformation: An analysis of gendered disinformation tactics during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disinfo.eu, 4 December. https://bit.ly/3EY8QpP

Soriano-Moreno, Silvia (2019). “Violencia y acoso en el ámbito político como forma específica de violencia contra las mujeres”. Femeris: Revista multidisciplinar de estudios de género, v. 4, n. 3, pp. 134-157. https://doi.org/10.20318/femeris.2019.4933

Southern, Rosalyn; Harmer, Emily (2019). “Twitter, incivility and ‘everyday’ gendered othering: an analysis of tweets sent to UK members of parliament”. Social science computer review, n. 39, pp. 259-275. https://doi.org/10.1177/089443931986551

Stokes, Donald E. (1963). “Spatial models of party competition”. The American political science review, v. 57, n. 2, pp. 368-377. https://doi.org/10.2307/1952828

Suler, John (2004). “The online disinhibition effect”. Cyberpsychology and behavior, v. 7, pp. 321-326. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931041291295

Torcal, Mariano (2020). “¡Enfrentados y enfadados! Una realidad preocupante”. Agenda pública, 31 de mayo. https://agendapublica.elpais.com/noticia/17006/enfrentados-enfadados-realidad-preocupante

Tromble, Rebekah; Koole, Karin (2020). “She belongs in the kitchen, not in Congress? Political engagement and sexism on Twitter”. Journal of applied journalism & media studies, v. 9, n. 2, pp. 191-214. https://doi.org/10.1386/ajms_00022_1

Verge, Tània (2012). “Institutionalising gender equality in Spain: from party quotas to electoral gender quotas”. West European politics, v. 35, pp. 395-414. https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2011.648014

Vogels, Emily A. (2021). “The state of online harassment”. Pew Research Center, 13 January. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2021/01/13/the-state-of-online-harassment

Wilhelm, Claudia; Joeckel, Sven (2018). “Gendered morality and backlash effects in online discussions: An experimental study on how users respond to hate speech comments against women and sexual minorities”. Sex roles, v. 80, pp. 381-392. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-018-0941-5

Zamora-Martínez, Patricia; Durántez-Stolle, Patricia; Martínez-Sanz, Raquel; Hernández-Herrarte, María (2020). “The language of secessionist activism: Discourse and dialogue on Twitter”. Catalan journal of communication & cultural studies, v. 12, n. 1, pp. 59-78. https://doi.org/10.1386/cjcs_00014_1

Zamora-Medina, Rocío; Gómez-García, Salvador; Martínez-Martínez, Helena (2021). “Los memes políticos como recurso persuasivo online. Análisis de su repercusión durante los debates electorales de 2019 en España”. Opinião pública, v. 27, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-01912021272681



Cómo citar

Durántez-Stolle, P., Martí­nez Sanz, R., Piñeiro Otero, T., & Gómez-Garcí­a, S. (2023). Feminism as a polarizing axis of the political conversation on Twitter: the case of #IreneMonteroDimision. Profesional De La información Information Professional, 32(6). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2023.nov.07



Artí­culos de investigación / Research articles