Soft news in original videos. Adaptation to TikTok of the main Spanish online media



Palabras clave:

Digital journalism, Legacy media, New media, Social media, Hybrid media system, TikTok, Short videos, Native videos, Soft news, Hard news, Content analysis, Spain


Since the beginning of 2020, media around the world have started and intensified their TikTok activity to gain notoriety and reach young people, their main user group. However, as with other previously popularized social media, such as Facebook or Twitter, the platform´s logic is different from that traditionally employed by the media system when developing information products. The objective of this paper is to analyze the degree of adaptation to the logic of this network for the activity developed on it by the Spanish media. For this purpose, a combined methodology of quantitative and content analysis was applied to 446 videos posted by the official user accounts of 20 Minutos, Antena 3 Noticias, El Diario, El Mundo, and El Paí­s -the five media outlets with the largest online audience in that period -from the time the accounts were created until January 31, 2022. Specifically, we studied the activity developed, the notoriety achieved, and the interaction obtained, as well as the most common formats, topics, protagonists, and brand identity elements. The results show that the main Spanish media have tried to adapt to the entertainment logic of the platform both with the use of native editing resources as well as through the creation of original materials, predominantly soft news, about entertainment, celebrities, and lifestyle. The videos that gain more notoriety are those that are more adapted to this logic. However, the Spanish media analyzed post less frequently than international media, obtain fewer views, and register lower engagement levels; in addition, they do not use their presence on this social network to promote their other editorial products. 


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Anderson, Katie-Elson (2020). "Getting acquainted with social networks and apps: it is time to talk about TikTok". Library hi tech news, v. 37, n. 4, pp. 7-12.

Aruguete, Natalia (2017). "Agenda building. Revisión de la literatura sobre el proceso de construcción de la agenda mediática". Signo y pensamiento, v. 36, n. 70, pp. 36-52.

Ballesteros-Herencia, Carlos A. (2020). "La propagación digital del coronavirus: midiendo el engagement del entretenimiento en la red social emergente TikTok". Revista española de comunicación en salud, suplemento 1, pp. 171-185.

Basch, Corey H.; Meleo-Erwin, Zoe; Fera, Joseph; Jaime, Christie; Basch, Charles E. (2021). "A global pandemic in the time of viral memes: Covid-19 vaccine misinformation and disinformation on TikTok". Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics, v. 17, n. 8, pp. 2373-2377.

Bhandari, Aparajita; Bimo, Sara (2022). "Why´s everyone on TikTok now? The algorithmized self and the future of self-making on social media". Social media + society, v. 8, n. 1.

Briskman, Jonathan (2022). Q1 2022: Store intelligence data digest report. Sensor Tower, April.

Bucknell-Bossen, Christina; Kottasz, Rita (2020). "Uses and gratifications sought by pre-adolescent and adolescent TikTok consumers". Young consumers, v. 21, n. 4, pp. 463-478.

Castells, Manuel (2009). Comunicación y poder. Madrid: Alianza Editorial. ISBN: 978 84 206 8499 4

Cervi, Laura; Marí­n-Lladó, Carles (2021). "What are political parties doing on TikTok? The Spanish case". Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 4, e300403.

Cervi, Laura; Tejedor, Santiago; Marí­n-Lladó, Carles (2021). "TikTok and the new language of political communication". Cultura, lenguaje y representación, v. 26, pp. 267-287.

Chadwick, Andrew (2013). The hybrid media system: Politics and power. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978 0 190696740

Chen, Zhuang; He, Qian; Mao, Zhifei; Chung, Hwei-Ming; Maharjan, Sabita (2019). "A study on the characteristics of douyin short videos and implications for edge caching". In: ACM TURC´19. Proceedings or the ACM Turing celebration conference, art. 13.

Cheng-Stahl, Catherine; Literat, Ioana (2022). "#GenZ on TikTok: the collective online self-portrait of the social media generation". Journal of youth studies, first online.

Freelon, Deen (2013). "ReCal OIR: Ordinal, interval, and ratio intercoder reliability as a web service". International journal of internet science, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 10-16.

Gamir-Rí­os, José; Sánchez-Castillo, Sebastián (2022). "The political irruption of short video: Is TikTok a new window for Spanish parties?". Communication & society, v. 35, n. 2, pp. 37-52.

Garcí­a-Marí­n, David; Salvat-Martinrey, Guiomar (2022). "Viralizar la verdad. Factores predictivos del engagement en el contenido verificado en TikTok". Profesional de la información, v. 31, n. 2, e310210.

Garcí­a-Orosa, Berta; López-Garcí­a, Xosé; Vázquez-Herrero, Jorge (2020). "Journalism in digital native media: Beyond technological determinism". Media and communication, v. 8, n. 2, pp. 5-15.

Garcí­a-Rivero, Ainhoa; Martí­nez-Estrella, Eva-Citlali; Bonales-Daimiel, Gema (2022). "TikTok y Twitch: New media and formulas to impact the Generation Z". Icono 14, v. 20, n. 1.

Herrero-Curiel, Eva; La-Rosa, Leonardo (2022). "Secondary education students and media literacy in the age of disinformation. [Los estudiantes de secundaria y la alfabetización mediática en la era de la desinformación]". Comunicar, v. 30, n. 73, pp. 95-106.

IAB Spain (2022). Estudio de redes sociales 2022.

Ibarra-Herrera, Daniela (2020). "Análisis discursivo en sistemas hí­bridos de medios: una aproximación metodológica". Logos, v. 30, n. 2, pp. 314-330.

Igartua, Juan-José (2006). Métodos cuantitativos de investigación en comunicación. Barcelona: Bosch. ISBN: 978 84 9790 271 7

Jenkins, Henry (2006). Convergence culture: Where old and new media collide. New York: New York University Press. ISBN: 978 0 8147 4281 5

Kaye, D. Bondy-Valdovinos; Chen, Xu; Zeng, Jing (2021). "The co-evolution of two Chinese mobile short video apps: Parallel platformization of Douyin and TikTok". Mobile media & communication, v. 9, n. 2, pp. 229-253.

Klug, Daniel (2020). ""˜Jump in and be part of the fun´. How U.S. news providers use and adapt to TikTok". In: Midwest Popular Culture Association/Midwest American Culture Association annual conference (MPCA/ACA).

Krippendorff, Klaus (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. ISBN: 0 7619 1544 3

Lasorsa, Dominic L.; Lewis, Seth C.; Holton, Avery E. (2012). "Normalizing Twitter: Journalism practice in an emerging communication space". Journalism studies, v. 13, n. 1, pp. 19-36.

López-Garcí­a, Guillermo (2015). Periodismo digital: Redes, audiencias y modelos de negocio. Salamanca: Comunicación Social. ISBN: 978 84 15544 93 7

Lu, Xing; Lu, Zhicong (2019). "Fifteen seconds of fame: A qualitative study of Douyin, a short video sharing mobile application in China". In: Meiselwitz, Gabriele (ed.). Social computing and social media: Design, human behavior and analytics. HCII 2019. Lecture notes in computer science, v. 11578. Cham: Springer, pp. 233-244.

Lu, Xing; Lu, Zhicong; Liu, Changqing (2020). "Exploring TikTok use and non-use". In: Meiselwitz, Gabriele (ed.). Social computing and social media: Participation, user experience, consumer experience, and applications of social computing. HCII 2020. Lecture notes in computer science, v. 12195. Cham: Springer, pp. 57-70.

Martí­nez-Costa, Marí­a-Pilar; Sánchez-Blanco, Cristina; Serrano-Puche, Javier (2019). "News consumption of hard and soft topics in Spain: Sources, formats and access routes". Communications, v. 45, n. 2, pp. 198-222.

Medina-Serrano, Juan-Carlos; Papakyriakopoulos, Orestis; Hegelich, Simon (2020). "Dancing to the partisan beat: A first analysis of political communication on TikTok". In: 12th ACM Conference on web science, pp. 257-266.

Negreira"Rey, Marí­a-Cruz; Vázquez"Herrero, Jorge; López"Garcí­a, Xosé (2022). "Blurring boundaries between journalists and tiktokers: Journalistic role performance on TikTok". Media and communication, v. 10, n. 1, pp. 146-156.

Neuendorf, Kimberly A. (2016). The content analysis guidebook. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications. ISBN: 978 1 412979474

Newman, Nic; Fletcher, Richard; Levy, David A. L.; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2016). Digital news report 2016. University of Oxford & Reuters Institute. ISBN: 978 1 907384 19 6

Newman, Nic; Fletcher, Richard; Robertson, Craig T.; Eddy, Kristen; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2022). Digital news report 2022. University of Oxford & Reuters Institute. ISBN: 978 1 907384 98 1

Newman, Nic; Fletcher, Richard; Schulz, Anne; Andi, Simge; Robertson, Craig T.; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2021). Digital news report 2021. University of Oxford & Reuters Institute. ISBN: 978 1 907384 90 5

Omar, Bahiyah; Dequan, Wang (2020). "Watch, share or create: The influence of personality traits and user motivation on TikTok mobile video usage". International journal of interactive mobile technologies, v. 14, n. 4, pp. 121-137.

Patterson, Thomas E. (2000). Doing well and doing good: How soft news and critical journalism are shrinking the news audience and weakening democracy - and what news outlets can do about it. USA: Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics and Public Policy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Peña-Fernández, Simón; Larrondo-Ureta, Ainara; Morales-i-Gras, Jordi (2022). "Current affairs on TikTok: Virality and entertainment for digital natives". Profesional de la información, v. 31, n. 1, e310106.

Pérez-Serrano, Marí­a-José; Garcí­a-Santamarí­a, José-Vicente (2021). "El papel de los periodistas influencers en las empresas mediáticas: su valor, poder y condiciones económicas". Estudios sobre el mensaje periodí­stico, v. 27, n. 1, pp. 399-408.

Reinemann, Carsten; Stanyer, James; Scherr, Sebastian; Legnante, Guido (2011). "Hard and soft news: A review of concepts, operationalizations and key findings". Journalism, v. 13, n. 2, pp. 221-239.

Salaverrí­a, Ramón; Martí­nez-Costa, Marí­a-Pilar (2021). Medios nativos digitales en España: Caracterización y tendencias. Salamanca: Comunicación Social. ISBN: 978 84 17600 60 0

Schellewald, Andreas (2021). "Communicative forms on TikTok: Perspectives from digital ethnography". International journal of communication, v. 15, n. 21, pp. 1437-1457.

Scolari, Carlos A. (2013). Narrativas transmedia: Cuando todos los medios cuentan. Barcelona: Deusto. ISBN: 978 84 23413362

Shutsko, Aliaksandra (2020). "User-generated short video content in social media: A case study of TikTok". In: Meiselwitz, Gabriele (ed.). Social computing and social media. participation, user experience, consumer experience, and applications of social computing. HCII 2020. Lecture notes in computer science, v. 12195. Cham: Springer, pp. 108-125.

Sidorenko-Bautista, Pavel; Alonso-López, Nadia; Giacomelli, Fabio (2021). "Espacios de verificación en TikTok. Comunicación y formas narrativas para combatir la desinformación". Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 79, pp. 87-113.

Sidorenko-Bautista, Pavel; Herranz-de-la-Casa, José-Marí­a; Cantero-de-Julián, Juan-Ignacio (2021). "Use of new narratives for Covid-19 reporting: From 360º videos to ephemeral TikTok videos in online media". Tripodos, v. 1, n. 47, pp. 105-122.

Silva-Rodrí­guez, Alba; Vázquez-Herrero, Jorge; Negreira-Rey, Marí­a-Cruz (2022). "Actualización de las fases del contenido periodí­stico para dispositivos móviles". Revista de comunicación, v. 21, n. 1, pp. 367-387.

Suárez-Álvarez, Rebeca; Garcí­a-Jiménez, Antonio (2021). "Centennials en TikTok: tipologí­a de ví­deos: Análisis y comparativa España-Gran Bretaña por género, edad y nacionalidad". Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 79.

Vázquez-Herrero, Jorge; Negreira-Rey, Marí­a-Cruz; López-Garcí­a, Xosé (2022). "Let´s dance the news! How the news media are adapting to the logic of TikTok". Journalism, v. 23, n. 8, pp. 1717-1735.

Vázquez-Herrero, Jorge; Negreira-Rey, Marí­a-Cruz; Rodrí­guez-Vázquez, Ana-Isabel (2021). "Intersections between TikTok and TV: Channels and programmes thinking outside the box". Journalism and media, v. 2, n. 1.

Vijay, Darsana; Gekker, Alex (2021). "Playing politics: How Sabarimala played out on TikTok". American behavioral scientist, v. 65, n. 5, pp. 712-734.

Vizcaí­no-Verdú, Arantxa; Abidin, Crystal (2022). "Music challenge memes on TikTok: Understanding in-group storytelling videos". International journal of communication, v. 16, pp. 883-908.

Wang, Jiahao; Wang, Yunhong; Weng, Nina; Chai, Tianrui; Li, Annan; Zhang, Faxi; Yu, Sansi (2022). "Will you ever become popular? Learning to predict virality of dance clips". ACM Transactions on multimedia computing, communications, and applications, v. 18, n. 2, art. 54.

Wang, Yu-Huan; Gu, Tian-Jun; Wang, Shyang-Yuh (2019). "Causes and characteristics of short video platform internet community taking the TikTok short video application as an example". In: 2019 IEEE International conference on consumer electronics-Taiwan (ICCE-TW).

Wang, Yunwen (2020). "Humor and camera view on mobile short-form video apps influence user experience and technology-adoption intent, an example of TikTok (DouYin)". Computers in human behavior, v. 110, 106373.

Yang, Shuai; Zhao, Yuzhen; Ma, Yifang (2019). "Analysis of the reasons and development of short video application: Taking Tik Tok as an example". In: 2019 9th International conference on information and social science (ICISS 2019), pp. 340-343.

Zhao, Zhengwei (2021). "Analysis on the "˜Douyin (Tiktok) mania´ phenomenon based on recommendation algorithms". In: 2020 International conference on new energy technology and industrial development (NETID 2020).

Zulli, Diana; Zulli, David-James (2022). "Extending the internet meme: Conceptualizing technological mimesis and imitation publics on the TikTok platform". New media & society, v. 24, n. 8, pp. 1872-1890.



Cómo citar

Estrada-Garcí­a, S., & Gamir-Rí­os, J. (2023). Soft news in original videos. Adaptation to TikTok of the main Spanish online media. Profesional De La información, 32(2).



Artí­culos de investigación / Research articles