Use of artificial intelligence in synthetic media: first newsrooms without journalists



Palabras clave:

Artificial intelligence, AI, Automation, Bots, News production, Robotized journalism, Artificial journalism, Newsrooms without journalists, Synthetic media, Synthetic journalism, Journalistic profession, Journalists, Digital native media, Digital journalism


The boom in artificial intelligence and automated technology in the journalistic profession has given rise to what are called synthetic media (Crusafon, 2022), media outlets that produce and publish texts, audio, videos, and other news content through processes executed solely by algorithms, without any intervention from journalists. This research has several objectives: to identify the first synthetic media outlets already operating, to describe how these newsrooms without journalists work, to better understand the type of content they produce, and to find out whether these are isolated and ephemeral operations or if, on the contrary, they mark the beginning of a trend toward journalism without the direct intervention of journalists. To this end, we have used an exploratory methodology, enabling us to identify four synthetic media outlets, which have been taken as an analysis sample: JX Press Corp (Japan); Reuters News Tracer (United Kingdom), News Republic (France), and Videre AI (Spain). An analysis of the news content on each project’s web pages was combined with in-depth semistructured interviews with the heads of technology and communication of the three European ventures. The Japanese initiative has no human staff, so its chatbot was the only way to obtain information. The purpose was to learn about the initiatives’ news production process, their impact on the journalistic profession, and their viability. This analysis helps demonstrate that the journalistic world’s reliance on artificial intelligence is becoming increasingly evident and that communication agencies are the first companies to invest in developing and distributing synthetic content to benchmark media. These initiatives, although still limited, are the most recent step in the process of gradually integrating artificial intelligence into news production.  


Acemoglu, Daron; Restrepo, Pascual (2019). “The revolution need not be automated”. Project syndicate, Mar 29.

Anderson, Christopher W. (2013). “Towards a sociology of computational and algorithmic journalism”. New media & society, v. 15, n. 7, pp. 1005-1021.

Aramburú-Moncada, Luisa-Graciela; López-Redondo, Isaac; López-Hidalgo, Antonio (2023). “Inteligencia artificial en RTVE al servicio de la España vacía. Proyecto de cobertura informativa con redacción automatizada para las elecciones municipales de 2023”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 81.

Autor, David H. (2015). “Why are there still so many jobs? The history and future of workplace automation”. Journal of economic perspectives, v. 29, n. 3, pp. 3-30.

Bardin, Laurence (1986). Análisis de contenido. Madrid: Akal. ISBN: 8476000936

Barrat, James (2013). Our final invention: Artificial intelligence and the end of the human era. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. St. Martin Press. ISBN: 978 0 312622374

Bostrom, Nick (2014). Superintelligence. Paths, dangers, strategies. Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978 0 199678112

Bravo-Orellana, Edgardo; Santana-Ormeño, Martín; Rodón-Módol, Joan (2014). “Impacto de la automatización sobre el desempeño. Evaluación en sistemas de información”. Revista venezolana de gerencia, v. 19, n. 66, pp. 267-286.

Brynjolfsson, Erik; McAfee, Andrew (2014). The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. New York: WW Norton & Company. ISBN: 978 0 393350647

Burrell, Jenna (2016). “How the machine ‘thinks’: Understanding opacity in machine learning algorithms”. Big data and society, v. 3, n. 1.

Calvo-Rubio, Luis-Mauricio; Ufarte-Ruiz, María-José (2021). “Artificial intelligence and journalism: Systematic review of scientific production in Web of Science and Scopus (2008-2019)”. Communication & society, v. 34, n. 2, pp. 159-176.

Caswell, David; Dörr, Konstantin (2018). “Automated journalism 2.0: Event-driven narratives”. Journalism practice, v. 12, n. 4, pp. 477-496.

Cerezo, Pepe (2018). Los medios líquidos. La transformación de los modelos de negocio. Barcelona: UOC. ISBN: 978 84 91801993

Cervera, José (2017). “El futuro del periodismo es cíborg”. Cuadernos de periodistas, v. 34, pp. 102-109.

Clerwall, Christer (2014). “Enter the robot journalist. Users’ perceptions of automated content”. Journalism practice, v. 8, n. 5, pp. 519-531.

Coddington, Mark (2015). “Clarifying journalism’s quantitative turn. A typology for evaluating data journalism, computational journalism, and computer-assisted reporting”. Digital journalism, v. 3, n. 3, pp. 331-348.

Codina, Lluís (2017). “Revisiones sistematizadas y cómo llevarlas a cabo con garantías: Systematic reviews y SALSA Framework”. Lluís Codina, 20 abril.

Cohen, Sarah; Hamilton, James T.; Turner, Fred (2011). “Computational journalism”. Communications of the ACM, v. 54, n. 10, pp. 66-71.

Cosoy, Natalio (2017). “Adivina quién escribió esto, un robot o un periodista”. BBC news mundo, January 29.

Craig, David; Ketterer, Stan; Yousuf, Mohammad (2017). “To post or not to post: Online discussion of gun permit mapping and the development of ethical standards in data journalism”. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, v. 94, n. 1, pp. 168-188.

Crusafon, Carmina (2022). “¿Cómo está cambiando la IA la manera de informar?”. Esglobal, 24 enero.

De-Lara, Alicia; García-Avilés, José-Alberto; Arias-Robles, Félix (2022). “Implantación de la inteligencia artificial en los medios españoles: análisis de las percepciones de los profesionales”. Textual & visual media, n. 15.

Deuze, Mark; Witschge, Tamara (2017). “Beyond journalism: Theorizing the transformation of journalism”. Journalism, v. 19, n. 2, pp. 165-181.

Diakopoulos, Nicholas (2019). Automating the news. How algorithms are rewriting the media. Cambridge, Massachusetts, Harvard University Press. ISBN: 978 0 674976986

Díaz-Campo, Jesús; Chaparro-Domínguez, María-Ángeles (2020). “Periodismo computacional y ética: análisis de los códigos deontológicos de América Latina”. Icono 14, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 10-32.

Dickerson, John P.; Kagan, Vadin; Subrahmanian, V. S. (2014). “Using sentiment to detect bots on Twitter: Are humans more opinionated than bots?”. In: Proceedings of the 2014 IEEE/ACM International conference on advances in social networks analysis and mining, pp. 620-627. IEEE Press. ISBN: 978 1 479958771

Dörr, Konstantin-Nicholas (2016). “Mapping the field of algorithmic journalism”. Digital journalism, v. 4, n. 6, pp. 700-722.

Fanta, Alexander (2017). Putting Europe’s robots on the map: Automated journalism in news agencies. University of Oxford; Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism.

Ferrara, Emilio; Varol, Onur; Davis, Clayton; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro (2016). “The rise of social bots”. Communications of the ACM, v. 59, n. 7, pp. 96-104.

Ferrer-Conill, Raúl (2015). “Locative and augmented journalism: Towards a new framework to researching the use of geoposition to deliver space-bound news”. In: GeoMedia 2015. Spaces and mobilities in mediatized worlds. Karlstad, Suecia.

Flew, Terry; Spurgeon, Christina; Daniel, Anna; Swift, Adam (2012). “The promise of computational journalism”. Journalism practice, v. 6, n. 2, pp. 157-171.

Flores-Vivar, Jesús-Miguel (2018). “Algoritmos, aplicaciones y big data, nuevos paradigmas en el proceso de comunicación y de enseñanza-aprendizaje del periodismo de datos”. Revista de comunicación, v. 17, n. 2, pp. 268-291.

Flores-Vivar, Jesús-Miguel (2019). “Inteligencia artificial y periodismo: diluyendo el impacto de la desinformación y las noticias falsas a través de los bots”. Doxa comunicación, n. 29, pp. 197-212.

Gaitán-Moya, Juan-Antonio; Piñuel-Raigada, José-Luis (1998). Técnicas de investigación en comunicación social: elaboración y registro de datos. Madrid: Síntesis. ISBN: 8477386048

Gani, Aisha; Haddou, Leila (2014). “Could robots be the journalists of the future?”. The guardian, March 16.

García-Avilés, José-Alberto; González-Esteban, José-Luis (2012). “Cibermedios nativos españoles: explorando modelos de rentabilidad”. Trípodos, n. 30, pp. 153-167.

Gómez-Diago, Gloria (2010). “Triangulación metodológica: paradigma para investigar desde la ciencia de la comunicación”. Razón y palabra, n. 72.

Goodman, Leo-Aria (1961). “Snowball sampling”. Annals of mathematical statistics, v. 32, n. 1, pp. 148-170.

Graefe, Andreas (2016). Guide to automated journalism. Columbia Journalism School. Tow Center for Digital Journalism.

Graefe, Andreas; Bohlken, Nina (2020). “Automated journalism: A meta-analysis of readers’ perceptions of human-written in comparison to automated news”. Media and communication, v. 8, n. 3, pp. 50-59.

Gynnild, Astrid (2014). “Journalism innovation leads to innovation journalism: The impact of computational exploration on changing mindsets”. Journalism, v. 15, n. 6, pp. 713-730.

Herring, Susan C. (2010). “Web content analysis: Expanding the paradigm”. In: Hunsinger, Jeremy; Klastrup, Lisbeth; Allen, Matthew (eds.). International handbook of internet research. New York: Springer Verlag, pp. 233-249. ISBN: 978 1 402097898

Horky, Thomas; Pelka, Philipp (2017). “Data visualisation in sports journalism: Opportunities and challenges of data-driven journalism in German football”. Digital journalism, v. 5, n. 5, pp. 587-606.

Igartua, Juan-José (2006). Métodos cuantitativos de investigación en comunicación. Bosch. ISBN: 978 84 97902717

Irvine, Annie; Drew, Paul; Sainsbury, Roy (2012). “‘Am I not answering your questions properly?’ Clarification, adequacy and responsiveness in semi-structured telephone and face-to-face interviews”. Qualitative research, v. 13, n. 1, pp. 87-106.

Jung, Jaemin; Song, Haeyeop; Kim, Youngju; Im, Hyunsuk; Oh, Sewook (2017). “Intrusion of software robots into journalism: The public’s and journalists’ perceptions of news written by algorithms and human journalists”. Computers in human behavior, v. 71, pp. 291-298.

Karlsen, Joakim; Stavelin, Eirik (2014). “Computational journalism in Norwegian newsrooms”. Journalism practice, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 34-48.

Keeney, Maryanne (2015). “Future cast: will robots replace journalists like toll collectors?”. PubClub, March 18.

Kim, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Kang-Hee; Kim, Yong-Duk; Kuppuswamy, Naveen-Suresh; Jo, Jun (2007). “Ubiquitous robot: A new paradigm for integrated services”. In: 2007 IEEE International conference on robotics and automation, pp. 2853-2858.

Krippendorf, Klaus (2004). Content analysis: An introduction to its methodology. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 978 1 506395654

Lee, Sung-Min; Kim, Tai-Yun (1998). “A news on demand service system based on robot agent”. In: Proceedings 1998 Intl conf on parallel and distributed systems, pp. 528-532.

Lemelshtrich-Latar, Noam (2018). Robot journalism, can human journalism survive? Israel: Centro Interdisciplinario Herzliya. ISBN: 978 9813237339

Levand, Mark A. (2021). “Communication strategies and responses to change around issues of sexuality in Catholic higher education”. Profesional de la información, v. 30, n. 5, e300504.

Levy, Steve (2012). “The rise of the robot reporter”. Wired, v. 20, n. 5, pp. 132-139.

Lewis, Seth C.; Westlund, Oscar (2015). “Big data and journalism. Epistemology, expertise, economics, and ethics”. Digital journalism, v. 3, n. 3, pp. 447-466.

Lindén, Carl-Gustav (2017). “Algorithms for journalism: The future of news work”. The journal of media innovations, v. 4, n. 1, pp. 60-76.

Lokot, Tetyana; Diakopoulos, Nicholas (2016). “News bots: Automating news and information dissemination on Twitter”. Digital journalism, v. 4, n. 6, pp. 682-699.

López-Roldán, Pedro; Fachelli, Sandra (2015). “El diseño de la muestra”. En: López-Roldán, Pedro; Fachelli, Sandra. Metodología de la investigación social cuantitativa. Bellaterra: Dipòsit Digital de Documents, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

LSE (2019). The journalism AI report. New powers, new responsibilities. A global survey of journalism and artificial intelligence. The London School of Economics and Political Science.

Manfredi-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Ufarte-Ruiz, María-José (2020). “Inteligencia artificial y periodismo”. Revista Cidob d’afers internacionals, n. 124, pp. 49-72.

Martin, Sean (2017). “Rise of the machine: Journalists under threat as AI robot writes article in one second”. Express, January 23.

Matsumoto, Rie; Nakayama, Hideki; Harada, Tatsuya; Kuniyoshi, Yasuo (2007). “Journalist robot: Robot system making news articles from real world”. In: 2007 IEEE international conference on robotics and automation, pp. 1234-1241.

Mauri-Ríos, Marcel; Ramon-Vegas, Xavier (2015). “Nuevos sistemas de rendición de cuentas de la información periodística. Exploración del escenario online español”. El profesional de la información, v. 24, n. 4, pp. 380-389.

Meehan, James R. (1977). “TALE-SPIN. An interactive program that writes stories”. International joint conferences on artificial intelligence, v. 77, pp. 91-98.

Melin, Magnus; Bäck, Asta; Södergård, Caj; Munezero, Myriam D.; Leppänen, Leo J.; Toivonen, Hannu (2018). “No landslide for the human journalist. An empirical study of computer-generated election news in Finland”. IEEE Access, v. 6, pp. 43356-43367.

Mittal, Sudip; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam (2014). “Broker bots: Analyzing automated activity during high impact events on Twitter”. ArXiv preprint arXiv:1406.4286.

Monnerat, Alessandra (2018). “Científicos de datos trabajan en el primer robot-periodista de Brasil para reportar sobre proyectos de ley de la Cámara”. LatAm journalism review, January 15.

Montal, Tal; Reich, Zvi (2017). “I, robot. You, journalist. Who is the author? Authorship, bylines and full disclosure in automated journalism”. Digital journalism, v. 5, n. 7, pp. 829-849.

Napoli, Philip M. (2014). “Automated media: An institutional theory perspective on algorithmic media production and consumption”. Communication theory, v. 24, n. 3, pp. 340-360.

Newman, Nic; Fletcher, Richard; Kalogeropoulos, Antonis; Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis (2019). Reuters Institute. Digital news report 2019. Reuters Institute for the study of Journalism.

Nilsson, Patricia (2019). “El periodismo tradicional está en peligro de extinción”. Milenio, 10 junio.

Okuda-Benavides, Mayumi; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos (2005). “Métodos de investigación cualitativa: triangulación”. Revista colombiana de psiquiatría, v. 34, n. 1, pp. 118-124.

Oppenheimer, Andrés (2018). Sálvese quien pueda. El futuro del trabajo en la era de la automatización. Madrid: Debate. ISBN: 978 0 525564874

Ortega-Mohedano, Félix; Pereira-Galhardi, Claudia; Igartua, Juan-José (2016). “A quantitative approach to the television programs aimed to child and youth audience in Brazil”. Communication & society, v. 29, n. 3, pp. 49-68.

Otzen, Tamara; Manterola, Carlos (2017). “Técnicas de muestreo sobre una población a estudio”. International journal of morphology, v. 35, n. 1, pp. 227-232.

Papadimitriou, Aristea (2016). The future of communication: Artificial intelligence and social networks. Media & communication studies. Mälmo University.

Pavlik, John V.; Bridges, Frank (2013). “The emergence of augmented reality (AR) as a storytelling medium in journalism”. Journalism & communication monographs, v. 15, n. 1, pp. 4-59.

Powers, Matthew (2012). “In forms that are familiar and yet-to-be invented: American journalism and the discourse of technologically specific work”. Journal of communication inquiry, v. 36, n. 1, pp. 24-43.

Prisecaru, Petre (2016). “Challenges of the fourth industrial revolution”. Knowledge horizons, economics, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 57-62.

Rusell, Stuart; Norvig, Peter (2003). Artificial intelligence. A modern approach. Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN: 0137903952

Salaverría, Ramón (2016). “Los medios de comunicación que vienen”. En: Sádaba, Charo; García-Avilés, José-Alberto; Martínez-Costa, María-del-Pilar. Innovación y desarrollo de los cibermedios en España. Pamplona: Eunsa, pp. 255-263. ISBN: 978 84 31331252

Salazar-García, Idoia-Ana (2018). “Los robots y la inteligencia artificial. Nuevos retos del periodismo”. Doxa comunicación, n. 27, pp. 295-315.

Sánchez-Gonzales, Hada M.; Sánchez-González, María (2017). “Los bots como servicio de noticias y de conectividad emocional con las audiencias. El caso de Politibot”. Doxa comunicación, n. 25, pp. 63-84.

Sandoval-Martín, María-Teresa; La-Rosa-Barrolleta, Leonardo-Alberto; Herranz-Fernández, Francisco-Jaime; Franco-Álvarez, María-Guillermina (2019). “Estudio sobre la calidad de las noticias automatizadas en español”. En: XXV Congreso internacional SEP oportunidades y riesgos del periodismo hiperconectado, p. 180. ISBN: 978 84 90828724

Sixto-García, José; López-García, Xosé; Toural-Bran, Carlos (2020). “Oportunidades para la cocreación de contenidos en los diarios nativos digitales”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 4, e290426.

Sixto-García, José; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ana-Isabel; López-García, Xosé (2021). “Sistemas de verificación en medios nativos digitales e implicación de la audiencia en la lucha contra la desinformación en el modelo ibérico”. Revista de comunicación de la SEECI, n. 54, pp. 41-61.

Silverman, Craig (2013). “5 ways robots can improve accuracy, journalism quality”. Poynter, March 8.

Slater, Michael D.; Rouner, Donna (2002). “Entertainment-education and elaboration likelihood: Understanding the processing of narrative persuasion”. Communication theory, v. 12, n. 2, pp. 173-191.

Soler-Pujals, Pere; Enrique-Jiménez, Ana-María (2012). “Reflexión sobre el rigor científico en la investigación cualitativa”. Estudios sobre el mensaje periodístico, v. 18, pp. 879-888.

Steiner, Thomas (2014). “Telling breaking news stories from Wikipedia with social multimedia: a case study of the 2014 winter Olympics”. Arxiv:1403.4289.

Stern, Reuben (2017). “FL#195: A home page designed by algorithm”. Donald W. Reynolds Journalism Institute, May 24.

Tavares, Gabriela; Faisal, Aldo (2013). “Scaling-laws of human broadcast communication enable distinction between human, corporate and robot Twitter users”. PloS one, v. 8, n. 7.

Tejedor-Calvo, Santiago; Romero-Rodríguez, Luis-Miguel; Moncada-Moncada, Andrés-José; Alencar-Dornelles, Mariana (2020). “Journalism that tells the future: possibilities and journalistic scenarios for augmented reality”. Profesional de la información, v. 29, n. 6, e290602.

Thurman, Neil; Dörr, Konstantin; Kunert, Jessica (2017). “When reporters get hands - on with robo - writing”. Digital journalism, v. 5, n. 10, pp. 1240-1259.

Túñez-López, José-Miguel; Toural-Bran, Carlos (2018). “Inteligencia Artificial en la gestión de la comunicación: impacto de la robotización en la elaboración de contenidos informativos”. En: Herrero, Javier; Trenta, Milena (coords.). Comunicación y música: mensajes, manifestaciones y negocios. La Laguna: Universidad de La Laguna, pp. 1884-1896.

Túñez-López, José-Miguel; Toural-Bran, Carlos; Cacheiro-Requeijo, Santiago (2018). “Uso de bots y algoritmos para automatizar la redacción de noticias: percepción y actitudes de los periodistas en España”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 4, pp. 750-758.

Túñez-López, José-Miguel; Toural-Bran, Carlos; Valdiviezo-Abad, Cesibel (2019). “Automatización, bots y algoritmos en la redacción de noticias. Impacto y calidad del periodismo artificial”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 74.

Ufarte-Ruiz, María-José; Calvo-Rubio, Luis-Mauricio; Murcia-Verdú, Francisco-José (2021). “Los desafíos éticos del periodismo en la era de la inteligencia artificial”. Estudios sobre el mensaje periodístico, v. 27, n. 2, pp. 673-684.

Ufarte-Ruiz, María-José; Manfredi-Sánchez, Juan-Luis (2019). “Algoritmos y bots aplicados al periodismo. El caso de Narrativa Inteligencia Artificial: estructura, producción y calidad informativa”. Doxa comunicación, n. 29, pp. 213-233.

Valdiviezo-Abad, Cesibel; Bonini, Tiziano (2019). “Automatización inteligente en la gestión de la comunicación”. Doxa comunicación, n. 29, pp. 169-196.

Vállez, Mari; Codina, Lluís (2018). “Periodismo computacional: evolución, casos y herramientas”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 4, pp. 759-768.

Van-Dalen, Arjen (2012). “The algorithms behind the headlines. How machine-written news redefines the core skills of human journalists”. Journalism practice, v. 6, n. 5-6, pp. 648- 658.

Van-der-Kaa, Hille A. J.; Krahmer, Emiel J. (2014). “Journalist versus news consumer. The perceived credibility of machine written news”. Proceedings of the computation+journalism conference.

Villareal-Larrinaga, Oskar; Landeta-Rodríguez, Jon (2010). “El estudio de caso como metodología de investigación científica en dirección y economía de la empresa. Una aplicación a la internacionalización”. Investigaciones europeas de dirección y economía de la empresa, v. 16, n. 3, pp. 31-52.

Weeks, Lin (2014). “Media law and copyright implications of automated journalism”. Journal of intellectual property and entertainment law, v. 4, n. 1, pp. 67-94.

Wölker, Anja; Powell, Thomas E. (2018). “Algorithms in the newsroom? News readers’ perceived credibility and selection of automated journalism”. Journalism, v. 22, n. 1.

Wu, Shangyuan; Tandoc, Edson C.; Salmon, Charles T. (2019). “A field analysis of journalism in the automation age: Understanding journalistic transformations and struggles through structure and agency”. Digital journalism, v. 7, n. 4, pp. 428-446.

Yin, Robert K. (1981). “The case study crisis: Some answers”. Administrative science quarterly, v. 26, n. 1, pp. 58-65.



Cómo citar

Ufarte-Ruiz, M.-J., Murcia-Verdú, F.-J. ., & Túñez-López, J.-M. (2023). Use of artificial intelligence in synthetic media: first newsrooms without journalists. Profesional De La información, 32(2).


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.


Cargando métricas ...