Politicians on Social Media. The online database of members of national parliaments on Twitter

Resumen

In this article, we present the new online database Politicians on Social Media (https://www.politiciansonsocialmedia.com), which is intended for both academics and the public. This database was created with the aim of being continuously updated and providing relevant information on politicians’ activity on social media. We first used data from this database to analyze Twitter. This social networking site is increasingly at the forefront of scientific interest due to its growing number of users. It is often examined with respect to how politicians use it. For politicians, Twitter is an opportunity not only to inform people about their activities but also to communicate directly with voters. Attention is focused on members of parliaments (MPs). We examine not only how many MPs have adopted Twitter but also how active they are on it. We also examine the determinants of Twitter adoption by MPs. We analyzed all countries of the European Union, the European Free Trade Association, and the United Kingdom. Therefore, the research includes 32 European countries. Our analysis revealed that most MPs have adopted Twitter in Western European countries such as France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, or the United Kingdom, while MPs in Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, and Slovakia use Twitter the least. Twitter is very actively used by Spanish and British MPs. By contrast, the least active MPs on Twitter are in post-communist countries such as Bulgaria and Romania. Our correlation analysis showed a strong association between the number of Twitter users in countries and the adoption of Twitter by MPs. Specifically, more Twitter users in a country correlates with its being adopted by more MPs.

Referencias

Aguillón-Vale; Pedro-David; Narváez-Serra, Jellicy (2019). “Comportamiento del lenguaje de líderes políticos venezolanos en el uso de Twitter”. Signo y pensamiento, v. 38, n. 74. https://doi.org/10.11144/Javeriana.syp38-74.cllp

Ahmed, Saifuddin; Cho, Jaeho; Jaidka, Kokil (2017). “Leveling the playing field: The use of Twitter by politicians during the 2014 Indian general election campaign”. Telematics and informatics, v. 34, n. 7, pp. 1377-1386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2017.09.005

Alonso-Muñoz, Laura; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2018). “Communication of European populist leaders on Twitter: Agenda setting and the ‘more is less’ effect”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 6, pp. 1193-1202. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.nov.03

Amaral, Inês; Zamora, Rocío; Grandío, María del Mar; Noguera, José Manuel (2016). “Flows of communication and ‘influentials’ in Twitter: A comparative approach between Portugal and Spain during 2014 European elections”. Observatorio (OBS*), v. 10, n. 2, pp. 111-128. https://doi.org/10.15847/obsOBS1022016900

Bailer, Stefanie; Manow, Philip; Hug, Simon;Turner-Zwinkels, Tomas; Goet, Niels; Huwyler, Oliver; French, Elena (2018). Parliamentary careers in comparison. https://parliamentarycareersincomparison.org

Barberá, Pablo; Zeitzoff, Thomas (2018). “The new public address system: Why do world leaders adopt social media?” International studies quarterly, v. 62, n. 1, pp. 121-130. https://doi.org/10.1093/isq/sqx047

Bennett, W. Lance; Entman, Robert M. (eds.). (2010). Mediated politics: Communication in the future of democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9780521783569

Bennett, W. Lance; Livingston, Steven (2018). “The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions”. European journal of communication, v. 33 n. 2, pp. 122-139. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323118760317

Bonica, Adam (2016). “A data-driven voter guide for U.S. elections: Adapting quantitative measures of the preferences and priorities of political elites to help voters learn about candidates”. RSF: The Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the social sciences, v. 2, n. 7, pp. 11-32. https://doi.org/10.7758/rsf.2016.2.7.02

Bracciale, Roberta; Martella, Antonio (2017). “Define the populist political communication style: the case of Italian political leaders on Twitter”. Information, communication & society, v. 20, n. 9, pp. 1310-1329. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1328522

Carlson, Tom; Djupsund, Göran; Strandberg, Kim (2014). “Taking risks in social media campaigning: The early adoption of blogging by candidates”. Scandinavian political studies, v. 37, n. 1, pp. 21-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9477.12011

Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2015). “Estrategias y prácticas comunicativas del activismo político en las redes sociales en España”. Historia y comunicación social, v. 20, n. 2, pp. 533-548. https://doi.org/10.5209/rev_HICS.2015.v20.n2.51399

Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2018). “Research on political information and social media: Key points and challenges for the future”. El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 5, pp. 964-974. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.sep.01

Chen, Peter John; Smith, Peter Jay (2010). “Adoption and use of digital media in election campaigns: Australia, Canada and New Zealand compared”. Public communication review, v. 1, n. 1, pp. 3-26. https://doi.org/10.5130/pcr.v1i1.1249

Coleman, Stephen; Blumler, Jay G. (2009). The internet and democratic citizenship: Theory, practice and policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 9780511818271 https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511818271

Dang-Xuan, Linh; Stieglitz, Stefan; Wladarsch, Jennifer; Neuberger, Christoph (2013). “An investigation of influentials and the role of sentiment in political communication on Twitter during election periods”. Information, communication & society, v. 16, n. 5, pp. 795-825. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.783608

Daniel, William T.; Obholzer, Lukas (2020). “Reaching out to the voter? Campaigning on Twitter during the 2019 European elections”. Research & politics, v. 7, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168020917256

Daniel, William T.; Obholzer, Lukas; Hurka, Steffen (2019). “Static and dynamic incentives for Twitter usage in the European Parliament”. Party politics, v. 25, n. 6, pp. 771-781. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068817747755

Döring, Holge; Manow, Philip (2020). ParlGov. Parliaments and governments database: Information on parties, elections and cabinets in modern democracies. http://www.parlgov.org

Döring, Holger; Regel, Sven (2019). “Party Facts: A database of political parties worldwide”. Party politics, v. 25, n. 2, pp. 97-109. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068818820671

Eggers, Andrew C.; Spirling, Arthur (2014). “Electoral security as a determinant of legislator activity, 1832-1918: New data and methods for analyzing British political development”. Legislative studies quarterly, v. 39, n. 4, pp. 593-620. https://doi.org/10.1111/lsq.12059

Enli, Gunn-Sara (2015). “Mediated authenticity: How the media constructs reality”. New York: Peter Lang. ISBN: 978 1 433114854

Enli, Gunn-Sara; Skogerbø, Eli (2013). “Personalized campaigns in party-centred politics”. Information, communication & society, v. 16, n. 5, pp. 757-774. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.782330

Feenstra, Ramón A.; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2014). “Democracy in the digital communication environment: A typology proposal of political monitoring processes”. International journal of communication, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 2448-2468. https://doi.org/ 10.4185/rlcs-2017-1223en

Frame, Alex; Brachotte, Gilles (2015). “Le tweet stratégique: Use of Twitter as a PR tool by French politicians”. Public relations review, v. 41, pp. 2, 278-287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2014.11.005

Gerring, John; Oncel, Erzen; Morrison, Kevin; Pemstein, Daniel (2019). “Who rules the world? A portrait of the global leadership class”. Perspectives on politics, v. 17, n. 4, pp. 1079-1097. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1537592719000744

Göbel, Sascha; Munzert, Simon (2021). “The comparative legislators database”. British Journal of political science. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123420000897

Golbeck, Jennifer; Grimes, Justin M.; Rogers, Anthony (2010). “Twitter use by the U.S. Congress”. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, v. 61, n. 8, pp. 1612-1621. https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.21344

Graham, Todd; Jackson, Dan; Broersma, Marcel (2016). “New platform, old habits? Candidates’ use of Twitter during the 2010 British and Dutch general election campaigns”. New media & society, v. 18, n. 5, pp. 765-783. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444814546728

Gulati, Girish J.; Williams, Christine B. (2013). “Social media and campaign 2012: Developments and trends for Facebook adoption”. Social science computer review, v. 31, n. 5, pp. 577-588. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439313489258

Haman, Michael (2020). “The use of Twitter by state leaders and its impact on the public during the Covid-19 pandemic”. Heliyon, v. 6, n. 11, e05540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05540

Hoffmann, Christian Pieter; Suphan, Anne; Meckel, Miriam (2016). “The impact of use motives on politicians’ social media adoption”. Journal of information technology & politics, v. 13, n. 3, pp. 239-256. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2016.1169241

Hong, Sounman; Choi, Haneul; Kim, Taek Kyu (2019). “Why do politicians tweet? Extremists, underdogs, and opposing parties as political tweeters”. Policy & internet, v. 11, n. 3, pp. 305-323. https://doi.org/10.1002/poi3.201

Hootsuite; We Are Social (2021). Digital 2021 Global digital overview. https://datareportal.com/reports/digital-2019-global-digital-overview

Hrdina, Matouš; Karaščáková, Zuzana (2014). “Parties, pirates and politicians: The 2014 European Parliamentary elections on Czech Twitter”. Human affairs, v. 24, n. 4, pp. 437-451. https://doi.org/10.2478/s13374-014-0239-4

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research; McKibbin, Carroll (1997). Roster of United States congressional officeholders and biographical characteristics of members of the United States Congress, 1789-1996.

Jungherr, Andreas (2016). “Twitter use in election campaigns: A systematic literature review”. Journal of information technology & politics, v. 13, n. 1, pp. 72-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2015.1132401

Karlsen, Rune (2011). “A platform for individualized campaigning? Social media and parliamentary candidates in the 2009 Norwegian election campaign”. Policy & internet, v. 3, n. 4, pp. 1-25. https://doi.org/10.2202/1944-2866.1137

Karlsen, Rune; Enjolras, Bernard (2016). “Styles of social media campaigning and influence in a hybrid political communication system: Linking candidate survey data with Twitter data”. International journal of press/politics, v. 21, n. 3, pp. 338-357. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161216645335

Kearney, Michael (2019). “rtweet: Collecting and analyzing Twitter data”. Journal of open source software, v. 4, n. 42, 1829. https://doi.org/10.21105/joss.01829

Kissas, Angelos (2020). “Performative and ideological populism: The case of charismatic leaders on Twitter”. Discourse & society, v. 31, n. 3, pp. 268-284. https://doi.org/10.1177/0957926519889127

Kruikemeier, Sanne (2014). “How political candidates use Twitter and the impact on votes”. Computers in human behavior, v. 34, pp. 131-139. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2014.01.025

Larsson, Anders-Olof (2015). “The EU Parliament on Twitter - Assessing the permanent online practices of parliamentarians”. Journal of information technology and politics, v. 12, n. 2, pp. 149-166. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2014.994158

Larsson, Anders-Olof; Ihlen, Øyvind (2015). “Birds of a feather flock together? Party leaders on Twitter during the 2013 Norwegian elections”. European journal of communication, v. 30, n. 6, pp. 666-681. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323115595525

Larsson, Anders-Olof; Kalsnes, Bente (2014). “‘Of course we are on Facebook’: Use and non-use of social media among Swedish and Norwegian politicians”. European journal of communication, v. 29, n. 6, pp. 653-667. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323114531383

Lassen, David S.; Brown, Adam R. (2011). “Twitter: The electoral connection?”. Social science computer review, v. 29, n. 4, pp. 419-436. https://doi.org/10.1177/0894439310382749

López-García, Guillermo (2016). “”New’ vs ‘old’ leaderships: the campaign of Spanish general elections 2015 on Twitter”. Communication & society, v. 29, n. 3, pp. 149-168. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.29.3.149-168

López-Londoño, Luis-Miguel (2018). “La campaña a la Alcaldía de Manizales (Colombia) en Twitter: un caso para comprender la influencia de los medios en la interacción online entre candidatos y ciudadanos”. Palabra clave. Revista de comunicación, v. 21, n. 3, pp. 798-830. https://doi.org/10.5294/pacla.2018.21.3.7

López-Meri, Amparo; Marcos-García, Silvia; Casero-Ripollés, Andreu (2017). “What do politicians do on Twitter? Functions and communication strategies in the Spanish electoral campaign of 2016”. El profesional de la información, v. 26, n. 5, pp. 795-804. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2017.sep.02

Macková, Alena; Štětka, Václav (2016). “Walking the party line? The determinants of Facebook’s adoption and use by Czech parliamentarians”. Medijske studije, v. 7, n. 14, pp. 157-175. https://doi.org/10.20901/ms.7.14.11

Macková, Alena; Štetka, Václav; Zápotocký, Jan; Hladík, Radim (2017). “Who is afraid of the platforms? Adoption of and strategies for use of social media by politicians in the Czech Republic”. In: Surowiec, Paweł; Štětka, Václav. Social media and politics in Central and Eastern Europe. London: Routledge, pp. 23-44. ISBN: 9781138100824

Masroor, Farzana; Khan, Qintarah N.; Aib, Iman; Ali, Zulfiqar (2019). “Polarization and ideological weaving in Twitter discourse of politicians”. Social media + society, v. 5, n. 4. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305119891220

Meganck, Shana; Guidry, Jeanine; Messner, Marcus; Medina-Messner, Vivian (2019). “@JunckerEU vs. @MartinSchulz: How leading candidates in the 2014 European Parliament elections campaigned on Twitter”. First Monday, v. 24, n. 11. https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v24i11.9856

Norris, Pippa (2020). “Measuring populism worldwide”. Party politics, v. 26, n. 6, pp. 697-717. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068820927686

Obholzer, Lukas; Daniel, William T. (2016). “An online electoral connection? How electoral systems condition representatives’ social media use”. European Union politics, v. 17, n. 3, pp. 387-407. https://doi.org/10.1177/1465116516630149

Parmelee, John H.; Bichard, Shannon L. (2011). Politics and the Twitter revolution: How tweets influence the relationship between political leaders and the public. Lanham: Lexington Books. ISBN: 9780739165003

Pérez Dasilva, Jesús; Meso Ayerdi, Koldobico; Mendiguren Galdospín, Terese (2018). “Do Spanish political leaders interact with the media and journalists via Twitter?” Communication and society, v. 31, n. 3, pp. 299-317. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.31.3.299-317

Pierri, Francesco; Artoni, Alessandro; Ceri, Stefano (2020). “Investigating Italian disinformation spreading on Twitter in the context of 2019 European elections”. PLoS one, v. 15, n. 1, e0227821. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0227821

Plotkowiak, Thomas; Stanoevska-Slabeva, Katarina (2013). “German politicians and their Twitter networks in the Bundestag election 2009”. First Monday, v. 18, n. 5. https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v18i5.3816

Polk, Jonathan; Rovny, Jan; Bakker, Ryan; Edwards, Erica; Hooghe, Liesbet; Jolly, Seth; Koedam, Jelle; Kostelka, Filip; Marks, Gary; Schumacher, Gijs; Steenbergen, Marco; Vachudova, Milada; Zilovic, Marko (2017). “Explaining the salience of anti-elitism and reducing political corruption for political parties in Europe with the 2014 Chapel Hill Expert Survey data”. Research & politics, v. 4, n. 1, 205316801668691. https://doi.org/10.1177/2053168016686915

Quinlan, Stephen; Gummer, Tobias; Roßmann, Joss; Wolf, Christof (2018). “‘Show me the money and the party!’ – variation in Facebook and Twitter adoption by politicians”. Information, communication & society, v. 21, n. 8, pp. 1031-1049. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2017.1301521

Ramos-Serrano, Marina; Fernández Gómez, Jorge David; Pineda, Antonio (2018). “‘Follow the closing of the campaign on streaming’: The use of Twitter by Spanish political parties during the 2014 European elections”. New media & society, v. 20, n. 1, pp. 122-140. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444816660730

Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén; García-Gordillo, Mar (2021). “Thematic agenda on Twitter in the 2019 European Parliament elections: A comparative study between ‘Spitzenkandidaten’ and national candidates”. Tripodos, n. 49, pp. 29-49. https://doi.org/10.51698/tripodos.2020.49p29-49

Rivas-de-Roca, Rubén; García-Gordillo, Mar; Bezunartea-Valencia, Ofa (2020). “The far-right’s influence on Twitter during the 2018 Andalusian elections: an approach through political leaders”. Communication & society, v. 33, n. 2, pp. 227-242. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.33.2.227-242

Ross, Karen; Bürger, Tobias (2014). “Face to face(book): Social media, political campaigning and the unbearable lightness of being there”. Political science, v. 66, n. 1, pp. 46-62. https://doi.org/10.1177/0032318714534106

Ruano, Luis-Eduardo; López, Juan-Camilo; Mosquera, Jonathan-Felipe (2018). “La política y lo político en Twitter: Análisis del discurso de los candidatos presidenciales de Colombia”. Risti. Revista ibérica de sistemas e tecnologias de informação, v. 28, n. 28, pp. 57-71. https://doi.org/10.17013/risti.28.57-71

Rufai, Sohaib R.; Bunce, Catey (2020). “World leaders’ usage of Twitter in response to the Covid-19 pandemic: a content analysis”. Journal of public health, v. 42, n. 3, pp. 510-516. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdaa049

Sabag-Ben-Porat, Chen; Lev-On, Azi; Lehman-Wilzig, Sam (2020). “Silent partners: How politicians’ Facebook communication with constituents is mediated”. Politics and policy, v. 48, n. 3, pp. 550-569. https://doi.org/10.1111/polp.12352

Sainudiin, Raazesh; Yogeeswaran, Kumar; Nash, Kyle; Sahioun, Rania (2019). “Characterizing the Twitter network of prominent politicians and SPLC-defined hate groups in the 2016 US presidential election”. Social network analysis and mining, v. 9, n. 1, 34. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13278-019-0567-9

Sandberg, Linn A. C.; Öhberg, Patrik (2017). “The role of gender in online campaigning: Swedish candidates’ motives and use of social media during the European election 2014”. Journal of information technology & politics, v. 14, n. 4, pp. 314-333. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2017.1369918

Schneiker, Andrea (2019). “Telling the story of the superhero and the anti-politician as president: Donald Trump’s branding on Twitter”. Political studies review, v. 17, n. 3, pp. 210-223. https://doi.org/10.1177/1478929918807712

Segado-Boj, Francisco; Díaz-Campo, Jesús; Lloves-Sobrado, Beatriz (2015). “Líderes latinoamericanos en Twitter. Viejas costumbres para nuevos medios en tiempos de crisis políticas”. Revista latina de comunicacion social, v. 70, n. 2, pp. 156-173. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2015-1040

Segesten, Anamaria-Dutceac; Bossetta, Michael (2017). “A typology of political participation online: How citizens used Twitter to mobilize during the 2015 British general elections”. Information, communication & society, v. 20, n. 11, pp. 1625-1643. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2016.1252413

Sieberer, Ulrich; Saalfeld, Thomas; Ohmura, Tamaki; Bergmann, Henning; Bailer, Stefanie (2020). “Roll-call votes in the German Bundestag: A new dataset, 1949-2013”. British journal of political science, v. 50, n. 3, pp. 1137-1145. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123418000406

Small, Tamara A. (2018). “Online negativity in Canada”. Journal of language and politics, v. 17, n. 2, pp. 324-342. https://doi.org/10.1075/jlp.17008.sma

Štětka, Václav; Macková, Alena; Fialová, Marta (2014). “A winding road from “likes” to votes”. In: Pătruţ, Bogdan; Pătruţ, Monica. Social media in politics. Case studies on the political power of social media. Cham: Springer, pp. 225-244. ISBN: 978 3 319046662 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-04666-2_13

Stier, Sebastian; Bleier, Arnim; Lietz, Haiko; Strohmaier, Markus (2018). “Election campaigning on social media: Politicians, audiences, and the mediation of political communication on Facebook and Twitter”. Political communication, v. 35, n. 1, pp. 50-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2017.1334728

Strandberg, Kim (2013). “A social media revolution or just a case of history repeating itself? The use of social media in the 2011 Finnish parliamentary elections”. New media & society, v. 15, n. 8, pp. 1329-1347. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812470612

Trechsel, Alexander H.; Mair, Peter (2011). “When parties (also) position themselves: An introduction to the EU profiler”. Journal of information technology & politics, v. 8, n. 1, pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2011.533533

Tromble, Rebekah (2018). “The great leveler? Comparing citizen-politician Twitter engagement across three Western democracies”. European political science, v. 17, n. 2, pp. 223-239. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41304-016-0022-6

Van-Vliet, Livia; Törnberg, Petter; Uitermark, Justus (2020). “The Twitter parliamentarian database: Analyzing Twitter politics across 26 countries”. PLoS one, v. 15, n. 9, e0237073. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0237073

Vergeer, Maurice (2015). “Twitter and political campaigning”. Sociology compass, v. 9, pp. 745-760. https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12294

Vergeer, Maurice; Hermans, Liesbeth; Cunha, Carlos (2013). “Web campaigning in the 2009 European Parliament elections: A cross-national comparative analysis”. New media and society, v. 15, n. 1, pp. 128-148. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812457337

Vergeer, Maurice; Hermans, Liesbeth; Sams, Steven (2013). “Online social networks and micro-blogging in political campaigning”. Party politics, v. 19, n. 3, pp. 477-501. https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068811407580

Wagner, Claudia (2017). “Politicians on Wikipedia and DBpedia (Version: 1.0.0)”. Gesis - Leibniz-Institute for the Social Sciences. https://doi.org/10.7802/1515

Williams, Christine B.; Gulati, Girish J. ‘Jeff’ (2013). “Social networks in political campaigns: Facebook and the congressional elections of 2006 and 2008”. New media & society, v. 15, n. 1, pp. 52-71. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812457332

Publicado
2021-04-05
Cómo citar
Haman, M., & Školník, M. (2021). Politicians on Social Media. The online database of members of national parliaments on Twitter. Profesional De La Información, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.17

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.