Some viable models for digital public-interest journalism

Resumen

The supply of public interest journalism that serves the needs of citizens in a democratic society has always been scarce in the media marketplace when compared with sensationalism, gossip, entertainment, propaganda, and misinformation. This scarce commodity, whose market value lies in its credibility and depends on costly investments of time and money in professional research, has frequently required a subsidy, which for more than a century was provided by advertising. Now that this subsidy has mostly been devoured by technological platforms such as Google and Facebook, the industry and profession are developing new models focused on user needs and wants with a trend toward public service rather than profit. This paper uses deductive and critical methodologies to identify the most promising business models used by media companies to counteract the decline in public-interest journalism. Our proposal is that an appropriate business model can be the best way to revitalize media companies. The research is based on Chesbrough’s business model framework applied to 20 leading digital news publications from 16 countries. In addition, we analyze how Covid-19 has impacted those business models.

Referencias

Abbé-Decarroux, François (1994). “The perception of quality and the demand for services. Empirical application to the performing arts”. Journal of economic behavior and organization, v. 23, n. 1, pp. 99-107. https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-2681(94)90100-7

Afuah, Allan; Tucci, Christopher L. (2001). Internet business models and strategies: text and cases. McGraw-Hill Irwin. ISBN: 978 0 071151238

Anderson, Chris (2006). The long tail: Why the future of business is selling less of more. New York: Hyperion. ISBN: 978 1 401309664

Arrese, Ángel (2016). “From gratis to paywalls. A brief history of a retro-innovation in the press’s business”. Journalism studies, v. 17, n. 8, pp. 1051-1067. https://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1027788

Bardoel, Jo (1996). “Beyond journalism: A profession between information society and civil society”. European journal of communication, v. 11, n. 3, pp. 283-302. https://doi.org/10.1177/0267323196011003001

Benson, Rodney (2019). “Paywalls and public knowledge: How can journalism provide quality news for everyone?”. Journalism, v. 20, n. 1, pp. 146-149. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884918806733

Casero-Ripollés, Andreu; Izquierdo-Castillo, Jessica (2013). “Between decline and a new online business model: The case of the Spanish newspaper industry”. Journal of media business studies, v. 10, n. 1, pp. 63-78. https://doi.org/10.1080/16522354.2013.11073560

Cerezo, Pepe (2019). Suscripciones, “the new black”. Los modelos de pago emergentes. Madrid: Evoca. https://es.scribd.com/document/399188204/dosier-evoca-07-pdf

Cestino, Joaquín; Berndt, Adele (2017). “Institutional limits to service dominant logic and the servitisation in innovation efforts in newspapers”. Journal of media business studies, v. 14, n. 3, pp. 188-216. https://doi.org/10.1080/16522354.2018.1445163

Chesbrough, Henry W. (2010). “Business model innovation: opportunities and barriers”. Long range planning, v. 43, n. 2-3, pp. 354-363. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.010

Chyi, Hsiang-Iris (2013). Trial and error: U.S. newspapers’ digital struggles toward inferiority. Pamplona: Servicio de publicaciones. University of Navarra. ISBN: 978 84 80814447 https://dadun.unav.edu/bitstream/10171/42076/1/201610%20MMM%2014%20%282013%29.pdf

Chyi, Hsiang-Iris; Ng, Yee-Man-Margaret (2020). “Still unwilling to pay: An empirical analysis of 50 U.S. newspapers’ digital subscription results”. Digital journalism, v. 8, n. 4, pp. 526-547. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2020.1732831

Chyi, Hsiang-Iris; Tenenboim, Ori (2019). “What if the future is not all digital? Trends in U.S. newspapers’ multiplatform readership”. In: Eldridge, Scott; Franklin, Bob (eds.). The Routledge handbook of developments in digital journalism studies. Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 157-171. ISBN: 978 1 315270449

Cifras y Conceptos (2017). Panel de opinión. http://cifrasyconceptos.com/productos-panel-de-opinion

Cook, Clare; Sirkkunen, Esa (2013). “What’s in a niche? Exploring the business model of online journalism”. Journal of media business studies, v. 10, n. 4, pp. 63-82. https://doi.org/10.1080/16522354.2013.11073576

Cornia, Alessio; Sehl, Annika; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2019). “Comparing legacy media responses to the changing business of news: Cross-national similarities and differences across media types”. International communication gazette, v. 81, n. 6-8, pp. 686-706. https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048518808641

Costera-Meijer, Irene (2001). “The public quality of popular journalism: developing a normative framework”. Journalism studies, v. 2, n. 2, pp. 189-205. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616700120042079

Costera-Meijer, Irene (2012). “Valuable journalism: A search for quality from the vantage point of the user”. Journalism, v. 14, n. 6, pp. 754-770. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884912455899

Deuze, Mark (2005). “What is journalism? Professional identity and ideology of journalists reconsidered”. Journalism, v. 6, n. 4, pp. 442-464. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884905056815

Deuze, Mark; Witschge, Tamara (2018). “Beyond journalism: Theorizing the transformation of journalism”. Journalism, v. 19, n. 2, pp. 165-181. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884916688550

Díaz-Noci, Javier (2019). “Cómo los medios afrontan la crisis: retos, fracasos y oportunidades de la fractura digital”. El profesional de la información, v. 28, n. 6, e280625. https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2019.nov.25

Doyle, Gillian (2013). “Re-invention and survival: Newspapers in the era of digital multiplatform delivery”. Journal of media business studies, v. 10, n. 4, pp. 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/16522354.2013.11073569

Engelke, Katherine M. (2020). “Enriching the conversation: Audience perspectives on the deliberative nature and potential of user comments for news media”. Digital journalism, v. 8, n. 4, pp. 447-466. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2019.1680567

Evens, Tom; Raats, Tim; Von-Rimscha, M. Björn (2017). “Business model innovation in news media organisations – 2018 special issue of the European Media Management Association (emma)”. Journal of media business studies, v. 14, n. 4, pp. 167-172. https://doi.org/10.1080/16522354.2018.1445164

Fila, Lukáš (2019a). “Letter to subscribers: Dennik N is experiencing the best time, the profit in 2018 was € 276,000”. Dennik N, 1 February. https://dennikn.sk/1368599/list-predplatitelom-dennik-n-zaziva-najlepsie-obobie-zisk-v-roku-2018-bol-276-tisic-eur/?ref=tema

Fila, Lukáš (2019b). “We have 35,000 subscribers, we unlock 35,000 articles”. Dennik N, 28 March. https://dennikn.sk/1422595/mame-35-tisic-predplatitelov-odomykame-35-tisic-clankov/?ref=tema

Foer, Franklin (2019). “Viktor Orbán’s war on intellect”. The Atlantic, June. https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/2019/06/george-soros-viktor-orban-ceu/588070

Gebauer, Heiko; Saul, Caroline; Halidmann, Mirella; Kramer, Sahsa (2017). “When one business model is not enough for a social business”. Strategic direction, v. 33, n. 1, pp. 10-12. https://doi.org/10.1108/SD-06-2016-0096

Gelles, David (2018). “Billionaires can seem like saviors to media companies, but they come with risks”. The New York Times, 19 September. https://www.nytimes.com/2018/09/19/business/media/newspapers-billionaire-owners-magazines.html

Graves, Lucas (2016). Deciding what’s true: the rise of political fact-checking in American journalism. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN: 978 0 231175074

Grieco, Elisabeth (2018). “Newsroom employment dropped nearly a quarter in less than 10 years, with greatest decline at newspapers”. Pew Research Center. FactTank. News in the numbers, April 20. https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2018/07/30/newsroom-employment-dropped-nearly-a-quarter-in-less-than-10-years-with-greatest-decline-at-newspapers

Hamel, Gary (1996). “Strategy as revolution”. Harvard business review, v. 7/8, pp. 69-82. https://hbr.org/1996/07/strategy-as-revolution

Harlow, Summer; Salaverría, Ramón (2016). “Regenerating journalism. Exploring the ‘alternativeness’ and ‘digital-ness’ of online-native media in Latin America”. Digital journalism, v. 4, n. 8, pp. 1001-1019. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2015.1135752

Holm, Anna B.; Günzel, Franziska; Ulhøi, John P. (2013). “Openness in innovation and business models: Lessons from the newspaper industry”. International journal of technology management, v. 61, n. 3-4, pp. 324-348. http://www.inderscience.com/offer.php?id=52674

IREX (2018). Media sustainability index 2018: The development of sustainable independent media in Europe and Eurasia. https://www.irex.org/resource/media-sustainability-index-msi

Jenkins, Joy; Nielsen, Rasmus-Klein (2020). “Preservation and evolution: Local newspapers as ambidextrous organizations”. Journalism, v. 21, n. 4, pp. 472-488. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884919886421

Kafka, Peter (2018). “TheSkimm is raising $12 million from Google Ventures and other investors to build its subscription business”. ReCode, March 15. https://www.vox.com/2018/3/15/17125870/skimm-google-ventures-funding-12-million-newsletter-millennial-women-subscribers-revenue

Karimi, Jahangir; Walter, Zhiping (2016). “Corporate entrepreneurship, disruptive business model innovation adoption, and its performance: The case of the newspaper industry”. Long range planning, v. 49, n. 3, pp. 342-360. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2015.09.004

Kelly, Tara (2020). “Two months, a 30% price rise and 18,000 new paying readers: what eldiario.es did after Covid-19 struck”. European journalism centre, May 28. https://medium.com/we-are-the-european-journalism-centre/two-months-one-price-rise-and-28-000-new-paying-readers-89be4ccd2a1a

Konieczna, Magda (2018). Journalism without profit. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN: 978 0 190641900

Lambeth, Edmund B.; Thorson, Esther; Meyer, Philip (eds.) (1998). Assessing public journalism. Columbia and London: University of Missouri Press. ISBN: 978 0 826211583

Magretta, Joan (2002). “Why business models matter”. Harvard business review, May. https://hbr.org/2002/05/why-business-models-matter

Márquez-Ramírez, Mireya; Guerrero, Manuel-Alejandro (2017). “Clientelism and media capture in Latin America”. In: Schiffrin, Anya (ed.). In the service of power: Media capture and the threat to democracy. Washington: National Endowment for Democracy, pp. 43-58. ISBN: 978 0 9818254 2 7 https://www.cima.ned.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/CIMA_MediaCaptureBook_F1.pdf

Media Development Investment Fund (2018). Investing for impact. https://www.mdif.org/impact

Mioli, Teresa; Nafría, Ismael (eds.) (2018). Innovators in Latin American Journalism. Austin, Texas: Open Society Foundations and Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas. https://journalismcourses.org/ebook/innovators-in-latin-american-journalism

Mütterlein, Joschka; Kunz, Reinhard E. (2017). “Innovate alone or with others? Influence of entrepreneurial orientation and alliance orientation on media business model innovation”. Journal of media business studies, v. 14, n. 3, pp. 173-187. https://doi.org/10.1080/16522354.2018.1445162

Nafría, Ismael (2017). La reinvención de The New York Times: Cómo la “dama gris” del periodismo se está adaptando (con éxito) a la era de los móviles. Amazon Digital Services. ISBN: 978 1 544822792

Nel, François (2010). “Where else is the money? A study of innovation in online business models at newspapers in Britain’s 66 cities”. Journalism practice, v. 4, n. 3, pp. 360-372. https://doi.org/10.1080/17512781003642964

Newman, Nic (2019). Journalism, media, and technology trends and predictions 2019. Oxford: Reuters Institute. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/our-research/journalism-media-and-technology-trends-and-predictions-2019

Newsguard (s.f.). https://www.newsguardtech.com/ratings/criteria-for-and-explanation-of-ratings

Nixon, Brice (2020). “The business of news in the attention economy: Audience labor and MediaNews Group’s efforts to capitalize on news consumption”. Journalism, v. 21, n. 4, pp. 73-94. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884917719145

Olsen, Ragnhild-Kristine; Pickard, Victor; Westlund, Oscar (2020). “Communal news work: Covid-19 calls for collective funding of journalism”. Digital journalism, v. 8, n. 5, pp. 673-680. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2020.1763186

Olsen, Ragnhild-Kristine; Solvoll, Mona-Kristine (2018). “Reinventing the business model for local newspapers by building walls”. Journal of media business studies, v. 15, n. 1. pp. 24-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/16522354.2018.1445160

Osterwalder, Alexander; Pigneur, Yves (2010). Business model generation: a handbook for visionaires, game changers, and challengers. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN: 978 0 470876411

Osterwalder, Alexander; Pigneur, Yves; Tucci, Christopher L. (2005). “Clarifying business models: Origins, present, and future of the concept”. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, v. 16, n. 1. https://doi.org/10.17705/1CAIS.01601

Pattabhiramaiah, Adithya; Sriram, S.; Manchanda, Puneet (2019). “Paywalls: Monetizing online content”. Journal of marketing, v. 83, n. 2, pp. 19-36. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022242918815163

Picard, Robert G. (2010). Value creation and the future of news organizations. Why and how journalism must change to remain relevant in the twenty-first century. Lisbon: Media XXI. ISBN: 978 989 8143 27 3

Picard, Robert G.; Dal-Zotto, Cinzia (2006). Business models of newspaper publishing companies. IFRA Report, May 2006. http://www.robertpicard.net/PDFFiles/IFRAbusinessModels.pdf

Ramírez-de-la-Piscina, Txema; Gorosarri, María; Aiestaran, Alazne; Zabalondo, Beatriz; Agirre, Antxoka (2014). “Periodismo de calidad en tiempos de crisis: Un análisis de la evolución de la prensa europea de referencia (2001-2012)”. Revista latina de comunicación social, n. 69, pp. 248-274. https://doi.org/10.4185/RLCS-2014-1011

Rappa, Michael (2000). Managing the digital enterprise. http://digitalenterprise.org/index.html

Reuters Institute (2016; 2017; 2018). Digital news report. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/research/files/Digital%2520News%2520Report%25202016.pdf

Salazar, Diego (2019). No hemos entendido nada: Qué ocurre cuando dejamos el futuro de la prensa a merced de un algoritmo. Barcelona: Debate. ISBN: 978 84 17636258

Schiffrin, Anya (ed.) (2019). Fighting for survival: Media startups in the global South. New York: Columbia University School of International and Political Affairs. https://www.cima.ned.org/resource/fighting-for-survival

Schiffrin, Anya; Santa-Wood, Beatrice; De-Martino, Susanna; Pope, Nicole; Hume, Ellen (2017). Bridging the gap: Rebuilding citizen trust in media open society foundation’s program on independent journalism. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1VRIMmdmvsRp2r2q7ttexe3Ccn36hc3oz/view

Schmidt, Christine (2019). “Three years into nonprofit ownership, The Philadelphia Inquirer is still trying to chart its future”. Nieman Lab, August 22. https://www.niemanlab.org/2019/08/three-years-into-nonprofit-ownership-the-philadelphia-inquirer-is-still-trying-to-chart-its-future

Simon, Felix M.; Graves, Lucas (2019). Pay models for online news in the U.S. and Europe: 2019 update. Reuters Institute. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2019-05/Paymodels_for_Online_News_FINAL.pdf

Soloviev, Vladimir I.; Kurochkin, Pavel A.; Rendiuk, Anton V.; Zazuk, Anton V. (2010). “Innovative business models in the media industry”. Annales universitatis apulensis series oeconomica, v. 12, n. 2. https://doi.org/10.29302/oeconomica.2010.12.2.21

Soria-Martínez, Carlos (1993). “Algunas heterodoxias para mejorar la calidad de la información”. Communication and society, v. 6, n. 1-2, pp. 49-58. https://revistas.unav.edu/index.php/communication-and-society/article/view/35560

Teece, David J. (2010). “Business models, business strategy and innovation”. Long range planning, v. 43, n. 2-3, pp. 172-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.003

Vara-Miguel, Alfonso (2016). “La marca como elemento diferenciador de los medios tradicionales y nativos digitales”. In: Bel, Ignacio (coord.). La prensa digital en España. New York: Institute for Media and Entertainment, pp. 123-138. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/312174125_La_marca_como_elemento_diferenciador_de_los_medios_tradicionales_y_nativos_digitales

Warner, Janine; Iastrebner, Mijal (2017). Inflection point. Impact, threats, and sustainability: A study of Latin American digital media entrepreneurs. Los Angeles: SembraMedia. https://www.data.sembramedia.org

Zott, Christoph; Amit, Raphael; Massa, Lorenzo (2011). “The business model: Recent developments and future research”. Journal of management, v. 37, n. 4, pp. 1019-1042. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206311406265

Zott, Christoph; Amit, Raphael (2010). “Business model design: An activity system perspective”. Long range planning, v. 43, n. 2-3, pp. 216-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lrp.2009.07.004

Publicado
2021-02-23
Cómo citar
Medina-Laverón, M., Sánchez-Tabernero, A., & Breiner, J. (2021). Some viable models for digital public-interest journalism. Profesional De La Información, 30(1). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.ene.18
Sección
Análisis / Analysis

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.