Uso institucional de Twitter para combatir la infodemia causada por la crisis sanitaria de la Covid-19

Palabras clave: Infodemia, Contexto internacional, Comunicación institucional, Gobierno de España, Twitter, Gestión de crisis, Covid-19, Coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, Relaciones públicas, Engagement, Confianza, Transparencia informativa

Resumen

La crisis sanitaria internacional provocada por la Covid-19, más grave que las provocadas por el SARS, el MERS, la Gripe A y el Ébola, supone un desafío sin precedentes para las instituciones de todo el mundo. El objetivo principal de este trabajo es analizar el comportamiento institucional a través de Twitter para determinar si es posible inferir un modelo eficaz de comunicación institucional de crisis online de aplicación en contextos más amplios. En este sentido, se establece un diseño metodológico cuantitativo, sustentado en el análisis de contenido sobre un corpus de 995 mensajes emitidos durante el primer estado de alarma por las cuentas oficiales de Twitter de las instituciones oficiales al cargo de la gestión de la crisis sanitaria de la Covid-19 en España: @sanidadgob (483 tweets), @mitmagob (154 tweets), @defensagob (263 tweets) e @interiorgob (95 tweets). Los resultados muestran un predominio de mensajes de empatía y seguridad (60,40%); una distribución estable de tweets por día, concentrándose el 88,74% de los mismos entre las 10:00 y las 20:59 horas; un uso comedido de recursos audiovisuales (32,26%) con un enfoque eminentemente informativo (96,18%); diferencias significativas según el estadístico chi-cuadrado con respecto al formato (χ2(12) = 606,066; p < 0,001) y el enfoque (χ2(3) = 36,084; p < 0,001) en función de la cuenta analizada, y una destacada tasa de engagement adscrita al Ministerio de Sanidad (68,96%). Estos resultados evidencian que Twitter permite aplicar un modelo de comunicación institucional online, de fácil transferencia al contexto internacional, que sugiere una estrategia de relaciones públicas sustentada en la transparencia informativa y el goteo informativo constante.

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Publicado
2021-02-24
Cómo citar
Pulido-Polo, M., Hernández-Santaolalla, V., & Lozano-González, A.-A. (2021). Uso institucional de Twitter para combatir la infodemia causada por la crisis sanitaria de la Covid-19. Profesional De La Información, 30(1). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.ene.19
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Análisis / Analysis

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