Composite indicators as an innovative methodology for Communication Sciences: implementation for the assessment of European public service media



Palabras clave:

Public service media, Research, Research methods, Communication, Composite indicators, Social value, Independence, Management, Innovation, Efficiency, TV, Television


The currently dominant scientific production model in the field of Communication exhibits an excess of standardization towards mainly empirical work that is overwhelming caried out using quantitative techniques based on simple statistical analyses, in many cases limiting the presentation of results to a reading of the available data. This article presents an innovative proposal in this area, designed as a new form of dissemination and scientific presentation, with the objective of constructing three composite indicators that, when applied to European public service media, will enable the assessment of the perception of their social value, independence, and management efficiency. Another aim of the study is to provide a comparative vision of these three aspects in all the countries of the European Union except Malta and Luxembourg. This methodology is innovative because it explains the process in detail and justifies the validity of the documentary sources that were used to facilitate its replication or questioning, and reinforces the discussion of the results obtained by evaluating the robustness of the indicators created, before determining which was the most appropriate and comparing the results with a multicriteria decision analysis technique, the Topsis method (technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution), proposed by Hwang and Yoon (1981). The results show that the synthetic indicators constitute an innovative, original, and validatable methodological tool that can contribute to the advancement of research in Communication.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


Ala-Fossi, Marko (2012). "Social obsolescence of the TV fee and the financial crisis of Finnish public service media". Journal of media business studies, v. 9, n. 1, pp. 33-54.

Arcila-Calderón, Carlos; Piñuel-Raigada, José-Luis; Calderí­n-Cruz, Mabel (2013). "La e-investigación de la comunicación: actitudes, herramientas y prácticas en investigadores iberoamericanos". Comunicar, v. 20, n. 40, pp. 111-118.

Berg, Christian E.; Lund, Anker-Brink (2012). "Financing public service broadcasting: A comparative perspective". Journal of media business studies, v. 9, n. 1, pp. 7-22.

Blasco-Blasco, Olga; Campos-Freire, Francisco; Juanatey-Boga, í“scar (2017). "Una propuesta de indicador para medir la eficiencia de la financiación mixta de las radiotelevisiones públicas europeas". Rect@, v. 18, n. 1, pp. 17-36.

Blázquez-Ochando, Manuel (2015). "Tesis doctorales en las universidades españolas durante el perí­odo 1977-2014". Investigación en documentación, 23 noviembre.

Brí¼ggemann, Michael; Engesser, Sven; Bí¼chel, Florin; Humprecht, Edda; Castro-Herrero, Laia (2014). "žHallin and Mancini revisited: Four empirical types of western media systems". Journal of communication, v. 64, n. 6, pp. 1037-1065.

Bí¼chel, Florin; Humprecht, Edda; Castro-Herrero, Laia; Engesser, Sven; Brí¼ggemann, Michael (2016). "Building empirical typologies with QCA: Toward a classification of media systems". The international journal of press/politics, v. 21, n. 2, pp. 209-232.

Caffarel-Serra, Carmen; Ortega-Mohedano, Félix; Gaitán-Moya, Juan-Antonio (2017). "Investigación en Comunicación en la universidad española en el perí­odo 2007-2014". El profesional de la información, v. 26, n. 2, pp. 218-227.

Campos-Freire, Francisco; De-Aguilera-Moyano, Miguel; Rodrí­guez-Castro, Marta (2018). "Impacto de las plataformas globales en la competencia mediática y los resultados de las empresas de comunicación europeas". Comunicación y sociedad, v. 31, n. 3, pp. 223-240.

Campos-Freire, Francisco; Soengas-Pérez, Xosé; Rodrí­guez-Castro, Marta (2018). "Indicadores de evaluación de los servicios informativos de la radiotelevisión pública". El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 2, pp. 267-277.

Casado-Del-Rí­o, Miguel-Ángel; Fernández-Quijada, David (2015). "References in communication policy research: a bibliographical characterization of articles published by Spanish authors". Communication & society, v. 28, n. 2.

Center for Media Pluralism and Media Freedom (2017). Monitoring media pluralism in Europe: Application of the media pluralism monitor 2016 in the European Union, Montenegro and Turkey. 2017 Policy report. Florencia: European University Institute. ISBN: 978 92 9084 459 4

Chaparro, Manuel; Olmedo, Silvia; Gabilondo, Victoria (2016). "El Indicador de la Rentabilidad Social en Comunicación (IRSCOM): medir para transformar". Cuadernos de información y comunicación, v. 21, pp. 47-62.

Comisión Europea (2016). Special Eurobarometer 452 - October 2016. Media pluralism and democracy. Bruselas: Unión Europea. ISBN: 978 92 79 63201 3

Consejo de Europa (2009). How member states ensure the legal, financial, technical and other appropriate conditions required to enable public service media to discharge their remit. Estrasburgo: Consejo de Europa.

Downey, John; Stanyer, James (2010). "Comparative media analysis: Why some fuzzy thinking may help. Applying fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis to the personalization of mediated political communication". European journal of communication, v. 25, n. 4, pp. 331-347.

Downey, John; Stanyer, James (2013). "Exposing politicians´ peccadilloes in comparative context: Explaining the frequency of political sex scandals in eight democracies using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis". Political communication, v. 30, n. 3, pp. 495-509.

EAO (2016). Yearbook. Television, VOD, cinema and video in 40 European States: markets and players, services and usage.

Eurodata (2016). One TV year in the world. Eurodata TV Worldwide.

Fernández-Quijada, David; Masip, Pere (2013). "Tres décadas de investigación española en comunicación: hacia la mayorí­a de edad". Comunicar, v. 21, n. 41, pp. 15-24.

Gaitán-Moya, Juan-Antonio; Caffarel-Serra, Carmen; Lozano-Ascencio, Carlos; Piñuel-Raigada, José-Luis (2018). "Condiciones y rendimientos de la Investigacion en Comunicacion: la vision de los academicos". CIC. Cuadernos de información y comunicación, v. 23, pp. 106-123.

Garcí­a-Cascales, Marí­a-Socorro; Lamata, Marí­a-Teresa (2012). "On rank reversal and Topsis method". Mathematical and computer modelling, v. 56, n. 5-6, pp. 123-132.

González, Miguel (2019). "Vox ya no pide cerrar las televisiones autonómicas sino privatizarlas". El paí­s, 21 mayo.

Goyanes, Manuel (2017). Desafí­o a la investigación estándar en comunicación. Crí­ticas y alternativas. Barcelona: UOC. ISBN: 978 84 9116 675 7

Goyanes, Manuel; Rodrí­guez-Gómez, Eduardo-Francisco; Rosique-Cedillo, Gloria (2018). "Investigación en comunicación en revistas cientí­ficas en España (2005-2015): de disquisiciones teóricas a investigación basada en evidencias". El profesional de la información, v. 27, n. 6, pp. 1281-1291.

Hallin, Daniel C.; Mancini, Paolo (2004). Comparing media systems. Three models of media and politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978 0 521543088

Harrison, Ellie; Wood, Vincent (2020). "Tony Hall: BBC faces "˜torrid´ time after director general´s departure, senior figures warn". Independent, 20 January.

Hwang, Ching-Lai; Yoon, Kwangsun (1981). Multiple attribute decision making. Methods and applications. A state-of-the-art survey. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN: 978 3 642 48318 9

Inhoffen, Lisa (2018). "Mehrheit wí¼nscht sich Abstimmung í¼ber Rundfunkbeitrag". YouGov, 6 Mí¤rz.

Lamata, Marí­a-Teresa; Liern, Vicente; Pérez-Gladish, Blanca (2016). "Doing good by doing well: A MCDM framework for evaluating corporate social responsibility attractiveness". Annals of operations research, v. 267, pp. 249-266.

López-Rabadán, Pablo; Vicente-Mariño, Miguel (2011). "Métodos y técnicas de investigación dominantes en las revistas cientí­ficas españolas sobre comunicación" (2000- 2009). En: Piñuel-Raigada, José-Luis; Lozano-Ascencio, Carlos; Garcí­a-Jiménez, Antonio (eds.). Investigar la comunicación en España. Actas del 1er Simposio nacional de grupos consolidados de investigación en comunicación y 1er Congreso nacional de metodologí­a de la investigación en comunicación. Facultad de Ciencias de la Comunicación. Fuenlabrada: Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, pp. 665-679. ISBN: 978 84 69427132

Lowe, Gregory-Ferrell; Berg, Christian E. (2013). "The funding of public service media: A matter of value and values". International journal on media management, v. 15, n. 2, pp. 77-97.

Lowe, Gregory-Ferrell; Maijanen, Pí¤ivi (2019). "Making sense of the public service mission in media: youth audiences, competition, and strategic management". Journal of media business studies, v. 16, n. 1, pp. 1-18.

Martí­nez-Nicolás, Manuel; Saperas-Lapiedra, Enric (2016). "Objetos de estudio y orientación metodológica de la reciente investigación sobre comunicación en España (2008-2014)". Revista latina de comunicación social, v. 71, pp. 1.365-1.384.

Mendel, Toby (2011). Public service broadcasting: a comparative legal survey. Paris: Unesco. ISBN: 978 92 3 104204 1

Miguel-De-Bustos, Juan-Carlos; Izquierdo-Castillo, Jessica (2019). "¿Quién controlará la comunicación? El impacto de los Gafam sobre las industrias mediáticas en el entorno de la economí­a digital". Revista latina de comunicación social, v. 74, pp. 803-821.

Mombelli, Armando (2018). "´No Billag´: qué es y qué repercusiones tendrí­a la iniciativa". SwissInfo, 30 enero.í­tica/iniciativa-popular_-no-billag---qu%C3%A9-es-y-qu%C3%A9-repercusiones-tendr%C3%Ada-la-iniciativa/43860578

Nardo, Michela; Saisana, Michaela; Saltelli, Andrea; Tarantola, Stefano (2005). Tools for composite indicators building. European Commission, report EUR 21682 EN (Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy).

Nelson, Jacob L.; Lei, Ryan F. (2018). "The effect of digital platforms on news audience behavior". Digital journalism, v. 6, n. 5, pp. 619-633.

Norris, Pippa (2009). "Comparative political communications: Common frameworks or Babelian confusion?". Government and opposition, v. 44, n. 3, pp. 321-340.

OECD/JRC (2008). Handbook on constructing composite indicators. Methodology and user guide. Paris: OECD Publisher. ISBN: 978 92 64 04345 9

Ofcom (2019). Ofcom´s annual report on the BBC.

Public Media Alliance (2019). Changing times for public media funding, 9 August.

Raats, Tim; Pauwels, Caroline (2011). "In search of the Holy Grail? Comparative analysis in public broadcasting research". In: Donders, Karen; Moe, Hallvard. Exporting the public value test. The regulation of public broadcasters´ new media services across Europe. Gí¶teborg: Nordicom, pp. 17-28. ISBN: 978 91 86523 26 8

Ramsey, Phil (2018). "Ireland: In search of reform for public service media funding". In: Herzog, Christian; Hilker, Heiko; Novy, Leonard; Torun, Orkan. Transparency and funding of public service media: Deutsche Debatte im internationalen Kontex. Wiesbaden: Springer VS, pp. 77-90. ISBN: 978 3 658 17997 7

Ramsey, Phil; Herzog, Christian (2018). "The end of the television licence fee? Applying the German household levy model to the United Kingdom". European journal of communication, v. 33, n. 4, pp. 430-444.

Rantanen, Terhi (2013). "A critique of the systems approaches in comparative media research: A Central and Eastern European perspective". Global media and communication, v. 9, n. 3, pp. 257-277.

Repiso, Rafael; Delgado-López-Cózar, Emilio; Torres-Salinas, Daniel (2011). "Análisis bibliométrico y de redes sociales en tesis doctorales españolas sobre televisión (1976/2007)". Comunicar, v. 19, n. 37, pp. 151-159.

Rodrí­guez-Vázquez, Ana-Isabel; Direito-Rebollal, Sabela (2018). "Hacia el Total View y la medición integrada: la televisión pública y su conexión con la audiencia". En: López-Golán, Mónica; Campos-Freire, Francisco; López-López, Paulo C.; Rivas-Echeverrí­a, Francklin. La comunicación en la nueva sociedad digital. Mérica, Venezuela: PUCE-UTPL, pp. 245-258. ISBN: 978 980 11 1932 6

Rotermund, Hermann (2018). "Digital media culture and public service media in the platform era". In: Lowe, Gregory-Ferrell; Van-den-Bulck, Hilde; Donders, Karen. Public service media in the networked society. Gí¶teborg: Nordicom, pp. 75-89. ISBN: 978 91 87957 73 4

Saisana, Michaela; Tarantola, Stefano (2002). State-of-the-art report on current methodologies and practices for composite indicator development. EUR 20408 EN, European Commission-JRC: Italy.

Saltelli, Andrea (2007). "Composite indicators between analysis and advocacy". Social indicators research, v. 81, pp. 65-77.

Saurwein, Florian; Eberwein, Tobias; Karmasin, Matthias (2019). "Public service media in Europe: Exploring the relationship between funding and audience performance". Javnost, v. 26, n. 3, pp. 291-308.

Schulz, Anne; Levy, David; Nielsen, Rasmus-Kleis (2019). Old, educated, and politically diverse: The audience of public service news. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. ISBN: 978 1 907384 64 6

The economist (2017). Democracy index 2016. Revenge of the "deplorables". London, New York & Hong Kong: The Economist Intelligence Unit.

Transparency International (2017). Corruption perceptions index 2016.

Trappel, Josef (2016). "Taking the public service remit forward across the digital boundary". International journal of digital television, v. 7, n. 3, pp. 273-295.

Túñez-López, Miguel; Martí­nez-Solana, Yolanda; Valarezo-González, Karina (2014): "Análisis de productividad, impacto e í­ndice h de la investigación en Comunicación a través de los perfiles personales en Google Académico". Revista latina de comunicación social, v. 69, pp. 684-709.

Warner, Mervyn (2019). Funding public media. An insight into contemporary funding models. Public Media Alliance.




Cómo citar

Blasco-Blasco, O., Rodrí­guez-Castro, M., & Túñez-López, M. (2020). Composite indicators as an innovative methodology for Communication Sciences: implementation for the assessment of European public service media. Profesional De La información, 29(4).



Artí­culos de investigación / Research articles