Una nueva taxonomía del uso de la imagen en la conformación interesada del relato digital. Deep fakes e inteligencia artificial

Palabras clave: Operaciones de influencia, Fake news, Deep fakes, Conformación del relato, Narrativa, Desinformación, Periodismo, Manipulación, Inteligencia artificial, Tecnología, Imagen, Vídeo, Conflicto bélico, Ámbito cognitivo

Resumen

Cualquier confrontación pretende la imposición, siquiera parcial, de los criterios y la voluntad propios sobre los del adversario. En los últimos años, las tecnologías digitales y la ciencia de datos se han combinado para favorecer la aparición de nuevas formas de control del discurso y para establecer potentes campañas de desinformación que constituyen un nuevo tipo de conflicto con características digitales. Precisamente, a partir de la bibliografía disponible y del trabajo directo de los autores en diversos grupos de expertos, este artículo estudia el uso de las imágenes –reales, alteradas o generadas artificialmente por completo– estáticas o en movimiento como uno de los medios más eficientes para alterar las percepciones y, por lo tanto, los relatos dentro del denominado ámbito cognitivo. Para ello, el artículo recoge de forma ordenada y exhaustiva la más reciente doctrina del entorno militar y de inteligencia relativa a las llamadas “operaciones de influencia”, desde una doble perspectiva tecnológica y sociológica. A partir de aquí, determina las diferencias entre las técnicas de desinformación tradicionales y las que incorporan tecnologías digitales y de inteligencia artificial sobre imágenes. El artículo propone una nueva taxonomía de doble entrada que refleje el grado de manipulación de las imágenes y el objetivo que se persigue con la desinformación. Este puede ser un medio para identificar y priorizar los casos más relevantes y, de aquí, adoptar las correspondientes contramedidas. Éstas se examinan en detalle para concluir que sólo una combinación de transparencia, formación del consumidor, tecnología y legislación puede contrarrestar el creciente uso de imágenes con contenido falseado.

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Publicado
2021-03-25
Cómo citar
Gómez-de-Ágreda, Ángel, Feijóo, C., & Salazar-García, I.-A. (2021). Una nueva taxonomía del uso de la imagen en la conformación interesada del relato digital. Deep fakes e inteligencia artificial. Profesional De La Información, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.3145/epi.2021.mar.16
Sección
Artículos de investigación / Research articles

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